Catalyst from Pongomia Pinnata, Non-Edible Oils.

Topics: Biodiesel, Fat, Vegetable fats and oils Pages: 16 (4238 words) Published: December 16, 2012
PRODUCTION OF SECOND GENERATION BIODIESEL USING PONGOMIA PINNATA

DanialDanny09

A proposal submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for completing the assessment of Project-based Proposal Writing (UHL 4042)

Centre for Modern Languages and Human Sciences

December 2011

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research is to produce second generation biodiesel from Pongomia Pinnata seed oil using a microwave assisted transesterification. Pongomia Pinnata seed oil is obtained after the mechanical extraction of rubber seed is using Soxhlet Extractor. The alcohol used in this research is methanol which is used to react with Pongomia Pinnata seed oil with a base or acid catalyst to produce methyl ester. Acid catalyst used in this research is potassium hydroxide (KOH) and base catalyst used is sodium hydroxide (NAOH). Parameter that concerned in this research is temperature and the ratio of alcohol and Pongomia Pinnata seed oil introduced in the microwave oven. As the parameter varies, we will able to obtain a suitable condition for this process. Proper safety measurement is emphasized to handle the microwave oven carefully as it involves electricity and temperature and to avoid any unintentional accident when conducting the experiment. The product that obtained after the reaction finish in the microwave oven is collected. Theoretically, two layer of liquid phase will present in the product which is the biodiesel and glycerol. The bottom layer which is glycerol is filtered off by a separation process and an impure biodiesel will be obtained. The biodiesel obtained is still contained a little amount of glycerol and other impurities. Hence, to get pure biodiesel, high-performance liquid chromatography (HLPC) is used to further purify the biodiesel. The biodiesel yield can be calculated relative to the initial amount of Pongomia Pinnata oil by weight and the biodiesel purity is determined according to the relative methyl ester content obtained by gas chromatography analysis (GC). Finally ester content and fuel properties of biodiesel can be determined using ASTM (D6751) standards.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTERTITLE PAGE

ABSTRACTii
TABLE OF CONTENTSiii-iv
LIST OF TABLESv
LIST OF FIGURESv
LIST OF APPENDICESvi

1 INTRODUCTION1
2.1 Background of Proposed Study1
2.2 Problem Statement2
2.3 Research Objectives2
2.4 Research Questions3
2.5 Scope of Proposed Study3
2.6 Expected Outcome3
2.7 Significance of Proposed Study4
2.8 Conclusion4

2 LITERATURE REVIEW5
3.9 Introduction5
3.10 Biodiesel5-6
3.11.1 Second Generation Biodiesel6
3.11 Pongomia Pinnata7
3.12.2 Plant Description7
3.12.3 Botanical Description and Fuel
Properties of Pongamia Pinnata8
3.12 Method used in production of biodiesel using
Pongomia Pinnata9
3.13.4 Two-step Transesterification Process9
3.13.5 Microwave Assisted Transesterification10
3.13 Conclusion11

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY12
4.14 Introduction12
4.15 Material13
4.16 Process of Microwave Assisted Transesterification13 4.17.6 Preparation of the Pongomia Pinnata Oil14 4.17.7 Microwave Assisted Transesterification14-15 4.17.8 Separation and Purification of Biodiesel15-16 4.17 Conclusion16

CONCLUSION17

REFERENCES18-19
Appendices20

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO.TITLE PAGE

2.1 Fuel parameters of Pongomia FAME, ASTMa and
German Biodiesel standarda8
3.1...


References: Balat, M. (2011). Potential alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production – A review. Energy Conversion and Management 52 , 1479–1492.
M.M. Gui, K. L. (2008). Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as. Energy 33 , 1646–1653.
Meher, L. D. (1997). Optimisation of alkalicatalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil for production of biodiesel. Bioresources Technology , 1392–1397.
N.N.A.N. Yusuf, S. K. (2011). Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management 52 , 2741–2751.
Ritesh Kumar *, G. R. (2011). Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed. Bioresource Technology 102 , 6617–6620.
Sanjib Kumar Karmee, A. C. (2005). Preparation of biodiesel from crude oil of Pongamia pinnata. Bioresource Technology 96 , 1425–1429.
Sreedevi, S. W. (2007). Pongamia’s Journey from Forest to Micro-enterprise for Improving Livelihoods. India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).
Teresa M. Mata a, 1. A. (2010). Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 , 217–232.
[1] Meher, L. D. (1997). Optimisation of alkalicatalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil for production of biodiesel. Bioresources Technology , 1392–1397.
[2] N.N.A.N. Yusuf, S. K. (2011), Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management 52 , 2741–2751.
[3] Teresa M. Mata a, 1. A. (2010), Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 , 217–232.
[4] M.M. Gui, K. L. (2008), Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as. Energy 33 , 1646–1653.
[5] Balat, M. (2011), Potential alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production – A review. Energy Conversion and Management 52 , 1479–1492.
[6] A., D. (2009), Potential resources of non-edible oils for biodiesel. Energy Source Part B , 4:310–4.
[7] Sreedevi, S. W. (2007), Pongamia’s Journey from Forest to Micro-enterprise for Improving Livelihoods. India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).
[8] Sanjib Kumar Karmee, A
[9] Ritesh Kumar *, G. R. (2011), Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed. Bioresource Technology 102 , 6617–6620.
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