Case Study Essential Care Needs

Topics: Nursing, Patient, Nutrition Pages: 7 (2416 words) Published: June 24, 2013
Meeting Essential Care Needs

Mrs Gale is a 70 year old widow and retired unskilled worker. The patient lives alone and relies on her son to provide basic care, medication and meals. Mrs Gale has a history of weight fluctuation owing to lifestyle but is currently at risk of malnutrition due to Parkinson’s disease. Mrs Gale shows signs of early dementia and suffers from poor mobility and pain caused by arthritis. Mrs Gale also has mild depression triggered by loss and has become socially isolated. All names have been changed as per the Nursing and Midwifery Council confidentiality guidelines (2008).

Mrs Gale is a 70 year old widow and retired unskilled worker. The patient lives alone and relies on her son to provide basic care, medication and meals. Mrs Gale has a history of weight fluctuation owing to lifestyle but is currently at risk of malnutrition due to Parkinson’s disease. Mrs Gale shows signs of early dementia and suffers from poor mobility and pain caused by arthritis. Mrs Gale also has mild depression triggered by loss and has become socially isolated. All names have been changed as per the Nursing and Midwifery Council confidentiality guidelines (2008).

Introducing the nature of essential care needs
Daily activities of living such as; eating, breathing, and mobilising were seen by Roper (1976) as a method of identifying the needs of a patient. By understanding what a patient requires in order to function normally, a nurse can address what is missing and produce a care plan accordingly. The Roper, Logan and Tierney’s model of nursing identified the activities that are deemed essential and suggests that it is not important to treat all the activities at once (Roper et al. 2000). Yura & Walsh (1983) believed that it is impossible to separate a person into their needs and therefore you cannot treat one without treating the others. Newton (1991) concluded that in order to conduct a holistic approach, all factors need to be considered. Along with the essential needs there are also the physical, psychological, sociocultural, politico-economic, and environmental factors that will need consideration. Factoring these into patient care produces a person centred approach (Steinbach 2009). This means that a patient will experience care that is individually tailored to them. In order to meet the needs of Mrs Gale, the care will be assessed according to differences in her human needs, her social role, her expectations of care and her lifestyle behaviours. This is because as an older adult, Mrs Gale's needs are different to those of younger adults and children (Copeman 1999; Yura & Walsh 1983). There will be particular focus on Mrs Gale's nutritional needs as this is an area of concern due to her Parkinson’s and the risk of malnutrition associated with it. The involuntary shaky movements associated with Parkinson’s disease causes an increase of energy expenditure which can lead to weight loss. Other symptoms and her medication can also decrease food intake. Fortunately medication such as levodopa contains medication that minimises these side effects (Green n.d.). Mrs Gale's poor mobility and pain levels will also affect her ability to consume nourishment as well as the ability to prepare, serve and purchase food and drink. Roper et al. (1996 cited Bloomfield & Pegram 2012) stated that when addressing psychological needs it is important to understand that Mrs Gale's appetite will be affected by her emotional state. Mrs Gale’s cognitive impairment may also lead to her forgetting to eat or consuming too much (Beardsley 2000). The environmental factors to consider for Mrs Gale are the layout of her home, having a suitable eating area, available food storage and how is Mrs Gale able to purchase food (Copeman1999; NICE 2006). Mrs Gale has been identified as being from a working class family; this means she has learnt behaviours which may impact on her health such as not buying suitable foods (Browne...
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