Module 04 Case Study: Bone Tissue
Part I— “Marissa” Questions
1. Describe bone tissue and the role each component plays in bone physiology and remodeling. What is the difference between compact and spongy bone? (2 points) Spongy bone looks like a sponge hence the name and contains a lot of red bone marrow (medulla ossium rubra). Red bone marrow is what produces red blood cells. Compact bones which consists of medulla ossium flava or yellow bone marrow, is made mostly of fat cells (Openstax College, 2013). 2. Explain the relationship between calcium and bones. (1 point) Calcium is essential for maintaining necessary level of bone mass to support structures of the body. The body uses calcium for heart, blood, muscles and nerves. It can be lost through bodily process like sweating, waste, shedding of hair, skin and fingernails. The close relationship between bone and calcium is the principal processes of calcium metabolism. Bone contains about 99% of calcium in the body and can behave as an adequate buffer for maintenance of a constant level of freely moving calcium in soft tissues, extracellular fluid and blood (Openstax College, 2013). 3. Explain how the body controls calcium levels in the bones and blood. Be sure to describe the roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in detail. (2 points) Increased blood calcium levels stimulate the secretion of calcitonin from the thyroid and active osteoblasts to build bones thereby reducing blood calcium levels to within their normal range. Decreased blood calcium levels stimulate the parathyroid glands to release PTH which activate osteoclasts which degrade bone and release calcium into the blood stream thereby raising blood calcium levels. 4. Explain specifically how osteoporosis affects the bone matrix and the normal bone remodeling cycle. (1 point) Osteoporosis results from an imbalance in which bone reabsorption outstrips bone formation. The net loss of bone matrix renders bones weaker and more susceptible to fracture with the fracture risk doubling for every ten percent bone loss (National Osteoporosis Foundation). 5. Discuss what scientists know about the genetics behind osteoporosis. (1 point) Genetic control of osteoporosis is polygenic. Etiology of osteoporosis is multifactoral in nature. From family histories, twin studies and molecular genetics it is evident now that some of the predisposition of osteoporosis can be inherited. 6. List at least 5 controllable and 3 uncontrollable risk factors for this disease. (1 point) Uncontrollable risk factors for osteoporosis is gender/sex, family history or hereditary and age. When it comes to age older women are more likely to get osteoporosis and fractured bones. Controllable factors are not consuming enough calcium and Vitamin D in your regular diet, taking calcium without co-minerals. Also high acid eating which means diets rich in animal protein add acid to the blood which can accelerate osteoporosis since it depletes bones of calcium, phosphorus and sodium. Excessive weight loss and dieting, not enough physical activity and smoking are all controllable factors to prevent osteoporosis (National Osteoporosis Foundation) . 7. What are the symptoms or telltale signs of osteoporosis? (1 point) In the early stages of osteoporosis there are typically no symptoms. Once bones have been weakened you can have signs and symptoms that include but not limited to, back pain caused by fracture of collapsed vertebra, loss of height over time, stooped posture along with bone fractures occurring more often .
Part II— “Jeremy” Questions
1. What foods are good sources of calcium? (1 point)
Good sources of calcium are cheese, yogurt, milk, sardines, leafy greens (spinach, kale, turnips, and collard greens), cereals (Total, Raisin Bran, Cornflakes), orange juice, soy beans, soy milk (labeled good source of calcium), breads, grains and waffles. 2. Discuss the importance of Vitamin D to calcium absorption. (1 point) Taking...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document