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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter attempts to review different literatures on customer satisfaction with reference to hotel industry and presents various studies made regarding the issues related with hotel industry and customer satisfaction.

Customer – Definitions Paul S. Goldner (2006) 1 defines, “…a customer is any organization or individual with which you have done business over the past twelve months”. Grigoroudis, E and Siskos, Y (2009) 2 provide definition for ‘customer’ upon two approaches: With reference to loyalty, “A customer is the person that assesses the quality of the offered products and services” and on process oriented approach, “the customer is the person or group that receives the work output” (p.9). “Customer means the party to which the goods are to be supplied or service rendered by the supplier”. 3

Customer Satisfaction – Definitions

Satisfaction has been broadly defined by Vavra, T.G. (1997) as a satisfactory post-purchase experience with a product or service given an existing purchase expectation. 4 Howard and Sheth (1969) 5 define satisfaction as, “The buyer’s cognitive state of being adequately or inadequately rewarded for the sacrifices he has undergone” (p.145). According to Westbrook and Reilly (1983) 6, customer satisfaction is “an emotional response to the experiences provided by, associated with particular 31

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products or services purchased, retail outlets, or even molar patterns of behaviour such as shopping and buyer behaviour, as well as the overall market place” (p.256). Oliver (1981) 7 put forward a definition as, “the summary psychological state resulting when the emotion surrounding disconfirmed expectations is coupled with the consumers’ prior feelings about the consumption experience” (p.27). The definition offered by Hunt (1977) 8 is “an evaluation rendered that the (consumption) experience was at least as good as it was supposed to be” (p.459). Customer/consumer satisfaction is “an evaluation that the



Cited: in Willard Hom (2000), An Overview of Customer Satisfaction Models, RP Group Proceedings, California Community Colleges. P.101. 26 Youjae Yi (1989), “A Critical Review of Consumer Satisfaction.” Working Paper: # 604, The University of Michigan, Michigan. 27 Peter Jones & Andrew Lockwood (2002), The Management of Hotel Operations, Cengage Learning EMEA 30 Peter Jones & Andrew Lockwood, (2002) 35 Silvia Figini and Paolo Giudici (2002), “Statistical Model for Customer Satisfaction Data”, Working Paper, University of Pavia Willard Hom (2000), An Overview of Customer Satisfaction Models, RP Group Proceedings, California Community Colleges. 38 Sachin Gupta, Edward McLaughlin, & Miguel Gomez (2007), “Guest Satisfaction and Restaurant Performance 40 Mohsin, Asad, Ryan, & Chris, (2005) 41 Laurette Dube & Leo M Renganathan (2000) 42 Jay Kandampully and Dwi Suhartanto (2000)

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