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caribbean studies ia

Topics: Waste management, Waste, Waste collection, Recycling / Pages: 11 (2523 words) / Published: Mar 10th, 2014

Theme: Environment
Problem Statement: An assessment of improper solid waste disposal in Mandeville, Jamaica.
Research Questions:
1. What are the different methods of improper solid waste disposal in Mandeville, Jamaica?
2. What are the impacts on the wider communities due to improper solid waste disposal in Mandeville, Jamaica?
3. What are the procedures for ensuring the collection of solid waste in the various communities?
4. What are some solutions to solve the improper solid waste disposal in Mandeville, Jamaica?

Purpose of research
The researcher have a basic idea of the methods in which persons living in Mandeville dispose of solid waste but one of the main reasons for conducting this investigation was to improve knowledge about the improper disposal of solid waste in Mandeville, Jamaica. The researcher also conducts this research with high hopes of finding solutions to help to solve the problem since the management of waste is a key factor to prevent pollution and unwanted diseases specifically in this area of study.

Background of the problem
Mandeville is the capital of one of the coolest parish in Jamaica, Manchester which is located in the county of Middlesex. Mandeville has an estimate population of about 50,000 but the research on the improper disposal of solid waste is done on four specific communities in Mandeville, Jamaica. Each community has approximately 240 persons.
Even though Mandeville is known to be a developed and rather an urban area the improper disposal of solid waste is a major short-termed factor which affects communities negatively. The improper methods of disposing of solid waste is seen on a regular basis in these communities so the researcher came up with pressing questions that needs to be answered during this study; What are the different methods of improper solid waste disposal in Mandeville, Jamaica? What are the impacts on the wider communities due to improper solid waste disposal in Mandeville, Jamaica? What are the procedures for ensuring the collection of solid waste in the various communities? What are some solutions to solve the improper solid waste disposal in Mandeville, Jamaica?

Educational Value
This study contains a large sum of educational content which is beneficial to Persons Island wide. Firstly the researcher will have a keen knowledge and understanding of this topic. Students who studies Environmental Science, Biology and Social Studies can benefit from this investigation also. The findings of this research will guide the communities under observation to better manage their solid waste.
The research is delimited to the management and regulation of the improper disposal of solid waste. The conduction of this study was done in two communities located in Mandeville, Manchester. The research partly targeted the residents of the two communities.

Definition of Technical Terms

Solid waste management: The management and regulation of solid waste disposal which can be either domestic or environmental.
Landfill: The disposal of waste material by burial.
Public Health: the practice of promoting good health and preventing diseases within groups of people, from small communities to entire countries.
Leachate: Water that has filtered through a solid and leached out some of the constituents.
Tributary: A stream or river flowing into a larger river or lake (parent river).

To fully understand this study on the improper disposal of solid waste in Mandeville, Manchester sources related to the topic were examined to get additional information.
Firstly, the researcher sought to find a meticulous definition for solid waste management. According to Deighton Gooden (2009), Solid Waste Management is the process of reducing, re-using and recycling waste products. It requires a change in our habits but does not necessarily mean a return to a more difficult lifestyle. Good solid waste management improves our standard of living. In fact if we do not reduce waste, the economic and social cost of waste disposal will continue to increase and communities large and small will face increasingly harder decisions about managing their trash. The results from this research will help in the understanding of solid waste management, and with the knowledge of this the researcher is able to conduct a better study of the improper solid waste disposal in Mandeville, Jamaica.
“The water (from the samples) is not safe for drinking because all the samples failed the public-health standards,” said an expert who wished not to be named. In the mean time Public Health officials are warning that the country is dangerously perched on the edge of an outbreak of water-borne diseases if the relevant authorities do not find a way to lock off the dirty practice Tyrone Reid (2010). This is a recent topic which speaks of unclean water, according to the researchers study ‘Deadly Water’ is caused by negative environmental practices carried out by living organisms. One of these negative practices is the improper disposal of garbage in or close to water sources. The water is later described as deadly since it is not safe to use. My study will also focus on ways in which individuals can sustain our water sources by caring friendly environmental practices.
"I agree that the message (of better environmental practices) needs to be reframed. Money needs to be put into that. (But) there is an incentive for people to throw their garbage into gullies because somebody that they know is going to be employed to clean that gully," she reasoned Dian Mclaulay (2012). Due to the high rate of illiteracy uneducated persons carries such acts. These persons are also described as being selfish, but they are not aware that the improper disposal of garbage is going to affect them in the long run. This study will examine ways in which the government of Jamaica and others environmental organizations can educate the residents in Jamaica since this problem is not only prevalent in Georges Valley and Woodlawn Housing Scheme, which are the areas being studied.
It was obvious that several tributaries emptying into sea were the main channels. Solid waste dumped in gullies, canals, and rivers are propelled by the force of water not only defaces shoreline but also destroys coral reefs, sea grass beds and mangrove swamp areas, which serve as a habitat for myriad organisms. Turtles, for example consume transparent pieces of plastic bag for jelly fish, one of their main food sources. Scenarios like these, if left unaddressed can wipe out the turtle population Janet Beckford-Williamson (2008). By carrying out these activities over a period of time will result in economic degradation of the country, since the beautiful beaches of the island attracts tourists. There would also be a reduction in fish (protein) for consumption. This study will seek better understanding on the disadvantages of disposing of garbage in improper grounds, which may later reduce the species diversity in that area.
Clive Simpson (2013), suggested in reference to solid waste management, the Health Department report noted that there were problems in storage and infrequent collection, which invariably causes obnoxious odour, attract flies, rodents and scavengers, and cause spillage. Due to the improper disposal of solid waste, there would be an increase in the reproduction of mosquitoes, later resulting in deadly diseases such as dengue. When garbage is improperly stored it can result in spillage, leachate is accumulated in the soil and later transports underground to water reservoirs which can cause water pollution. My study will examine the other reasons and seek answers for the improper disposal of solid waste in the communities being studied in Mandeville, Jamaica.


Research design
The type of research done is applied. To conduct this research, the researcher has used both quantitative and qualitative which consists of both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources used are; observation, questionnaire and interview. On the other hand the secondary sources are newsletters, internet sources and brochures highlighting the problem being studied. These methods that were chosen are appropriate for this kind of research.
Questionnaires were distributed to voice the views on the topic. The respondents were randomly chosen from the communities being studied.

Method of data collection
Questionnaires were used as a part of the research. A questionnaire is a form which contains a set of questions submitted to a number of people in order to collect or gather information for a survey. This method is appropriate since it collects quantitative data from respondents. It is also of most importance in obtaining the views of residents of communities being studied. A total of twenty questionnaires were distributed and collected by the researcher.
The questionnaire consists of a series of fifteen closed-ended and two open-ended questions.

Selection of sample
The areas being studied are located in Mandeville, Jamaica (George's Valley and Woodlawn Housing Scheme). The technique of sampling chosen was simple random sampling. In this method there is no subjectivity-each member of the total population has a equal chance of being selected and it is generally used when the population is homogenous. A total of 90 households were selected for the random sampling technique.

Collection of data
The research was carried out during the month of November 2013. It took twenty two days for the collection of data for this study, from November 2 -November 24. The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents and were collected three days later.

Analysis and presentation of data
The data for this research will be analyzed and presented in the form of tabular graphical methods.

Please indicate your response by placing a tick in the appropriate box and write on the lines that are provided.
1. What gender are you? Male Female

2. What is the size of your household?

Single person 2-4 persons 5-6 persons 7+ persons

3. How long have you been living in the community? Less than a year 1-5 years 6-10 years 11 years and more

4. On a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 representing effective and 5 being ineffective, how would you rate solid waste management within your community?

1 2 3 4 5 Effective Satisfactory Neutral Needs considerable Ineffective Development

5. In your opinion, is the rate of improper disposal of solid waste in your community increasing or decreasing? Increasing Decreasing

6. How frequently is your garbage collected by Solid Waste Management disposal units?

Once weekly Three (3) times monthly Two (2) times monthly Once or none at all monthly

7. The Solid Waste Management Authority is operating effectively and regularly in your community: Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

8. What is your method of garbage disposal? Via the garbage truck Public Bin/Facility Burning None of the above

9. What is your education status? Educated


10. In disposing your solid waste, do you?

Simply Bag it and wait for collection
Recycle, Reduce and Reuse items
Separate plastics
Make composts

11. What are other ways in which the residents of your community can help to reduce the improper disposal of solid waste?

12. What do you think results in irregularities/ inefficiency of the solid waste management authority?
Low funds
Poor management of garbage trucks
Issues with schedule
Not enough supervision from authorities

13. If there is an irregularity and inefficiency in solid waste management within the community, what are the possible impacts of such instance in your community?

Public Health Hazard (dengue etc.)
Infestation of rodents and insects
Odour as a result of garbage pile up
Environmental hazard

14. With the increase in dengue cases, what are factors which may have contributed to this issue?
Poor solid waste management
Relevant health authorities being less than effective in undertaking methods of prevention Little or no prevention measures by citizens
No public awareness campaigns

15. How can the Solid Waste Management Authority improve its service in your community?

Regularize its service
Set a daytime schedule
Return to finish collection when overloaded
Ensure that each household is visited

16. Would you inform a community member that is caught disposing of solid waste improperly of the negative impacts it has on the environment?

Yes No

17. What are some of the things that your community members have put in place to minimize the rate of improper disposal of solid waste?

The research was conducted between the communities of Georges Valley and Woodlawn Housing Scheme. A total of eight questionnaires were handed to residents living in the community of Georges Valley and seven to the residents of Woodlawn Housing Scheme.
The ---- in figure one shows that many of the respondents were living in households occupied by 2-4 persons, this information accounts for the percentage to be fifty four (54) on the other hand respondents living in households by themselves (single) is of a percentage of eleven (11) . The acquired information that is presented in figure 1 shows that 23% of the respondents lived in households that consist of 6-7 individuals. Only twelve percent (12%) of the responses stated that they share residence with seven or more persons.
The – in figure two showcases the respondents view on the effectiveness of the Solid Waste Management in their community. With reference to the --- in figure two sixty two percent (62%) of the respondents indicated that solid waste management within their community needs considerable improvement, but on the other hand thirty one percent of the respondents indicated that the solid waste management was simply ineffective. However the other four percent (4 %) indicated that it was neutral.
In figure 3 pie chart shows the indication of the respondents on is the rate of improper disposal of solid waste in their community if it’s increasing or decreasing. Eighty nine percent (89%) stated that it was increasing while nineteen percent (19%) chose the option that it was decreasing.
Figure 4 displays an --- which represents frequency of the collection of solid waste in disposal units. Eight percent of the respondents stated that solid waste in their community is collected once weekly. Forty two percent informed the researcher by choosing the option three times monthly while
Once weekly Three (3) times monthly Two (2) times monthly Once or none at all monthly

Figure 2: Pie Chart #1 shows what respondents deem to be the contributors to irregularities/inefficiency of the SWMA. In response to this, a majority of the respondents- a total of forty-five percent (45%) were of the view that low funds within the organization is to be blamed, in comparison to forty percent (40%) who thought that the poor management of garbage trucks is to be blamed. The remaining fifteen percent (15%) accounted for the minority of respondents who felt that there were issues with the schedule.
Figure 8: Table #2 displays the likely contributors to an increase of dengue cases. As shown on the table, one main contributor is poor solid waste management which was indicated by forty-five percent (45%) of respondents. Thirty percent (30%) of the respondents suggested that this issue is likely to be as a result of residents taking little or no prevention measures while another twenty-five percent (25%) of respondents believed that the relevant health authorities were being less than effective in undertaking prevention measures.
Figure 9: Bar Graph #3 shows the respondents’ opinions of how the SWMA can improve their service to the community. Given the various options, sixty-five percent (65%) of the respondents thought that the regularization of the service to the community would be an improvement. However, twenty percent (20%) felt that setting a daytime/more consistent schedule would be the solution. On the other hand, ten percent (10%) of respondents believed that ensuring that each household is visited, as well as the return to finish collection when overload as indicated by the remaining five percent (5%) would be an improvement.

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