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Caribbean Revolts

By Cbeanstudent Mar 09, 2014 1123 Words
History Revision
Resistance and Revolt
Slaves resisted enslavement in two ways:
Insurrectionary/ Active Resistance
Non- insurrectionary/ Passive Resistance
Non- Insurrectionary Resistance
This form of resistance was subtle and non-violent used by the slaves to convey their rejection to slavery. Methods of passive resistance include:
Grand Marronage (Running away for extensive periods)
Malingering (Working slowly; effective around harvest time as this would put the planters behind schedule) Suicide (slaves believed that after death their spirits returned to Africa thus they killed themselves to acquire permanent, irreversible freedom) Pretending to be sick

Pretending ignorance( not understanding what the planters or slave drivers were saying) Ill-treating and killing estate animals( expensing the planter Passive resistance was not very detectable and however if realized the acts had already been done. Insurrectionary Resistance

This type of resistance was violent and often widespread.
Methods of this form of resistance include:
Rebelling
Strikes
Poisoning slave masters ( often used Arsenic to do this)
Rebellions and Revolutions
A Rebellion: An act of open resistance usually or a violent nature towards to a person or group in authority. A Revolution: An overthrow of a government or social order by force for a new system to commence. They were many slave uprisings which lead to revolutions during the enslavement period. Slaves usually revolted to make the enslavers aware that they were dissatisfied with the conditions they were living in and their desire for emancipation The Tacky’s War, 1760

First major 18th century war
Led by Chief Tacky in St. Mary, Jamaica in April 1760
Initiated on Frontier Sugar Plantation owned by Ballard Beckford on the 7th April Africans raided Fort Haldane in Port Maria for weapons
Many British enslavers were killed (approx. 40-60)
Some Maroons assisted in fending off the British military forces Martial law was used to suppress to revolt
Protests spread to St. Thomas in the east and Westmoreland nonetheless. Over 1000 Africans were deported to Honduras, executed or flogged. The Berbice Rebellion, 1763
Initiated 23rd of February (Guyana National Day) on Plantation Magdelen. Causes of the Rebellion:
Slaves wanted freedom.
Slaves resented the managers for ill-treatment
Inadequate food
Leaders of the rebellion:
Kofi / Cuffy
referred to himself as the Governor of the Slaves
lived in the Council House at Fort Nassau
was a moderate
committed suicide 12th May
was enslaved on the Barkey Plantation on the Berbice River
tried to negotiate with the Imperial Dutch
was a Akan man from Ghana
was recognized as a National Hero
Accra
was second in command to Kofi
was referred to as Captain Accra or Deputy Governor
lived in the Council House at Fort Nassau
was Akan man from Ghana
was captured by Atta but escaped
surrendered himself to the Dutch in return for his life and freedom became a spy for the Dutch
Atta
greatly opposed Kofi’s leadership
was an extremist( believed in total war and killing all whites) selected a military council consisting of soldiers such as Kweku, Baube, Accabre, Kees, Goussari, Fortuin, Kwabena was from Ghana
wanted to drive all Dutch from Berbice and completely emancipate the enslaved Africans in the colony leadership fell apart because of the divisions and conflicts was captured and delivered to Dutch authorities as a result of Goussari’s and Accra’s betrayal Cosala- slave leader

The enslaved failed to obtain completely freedom and major leaders killed Causes of failure include:
Poor strategy of Kofi
Disunity of Africans- Kofi’s supporters against Atta’s supporters; born Africans against creoles Goussari and Accra becoming spies and betrayal
The slaves were successful in controlling Berbice for 10 months Dutch regained full possession of Berbice in February 1764

The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
Haiti was called St. Domingue before and during the rebellion Commenced on the 22nd August, 1791 but was decided on the 14th of August Leaders of the Revolution:
Toussaint L’Ouverture
Jean-Jacques Dessalines
Henry Christophe
Cleveaux
Causes of the Revolution:
i. Extreme mistreatment of slaves
ii. Coloureds desire for racial equality with the whites
Was the only successful slave uprising in the Caribbean
Independence in 1804
There was a high death toll after the revolution
The economy was ruined:
i. The large estates division into smallholdings resulted in inability to produce enough products to be exported for trade. ii. The whites left Haiti and took their knowledge of sugar production and their capital (money) with them. iii. The coffee industry became increasingly popular and Haiti did not produce coffee. iv. Expenses to repair damage infrastructure

v. Agriculture plots eroded during the fight and resulted high loss of crop The impact of the Hatian Revolution on the Caribbean:
i. Cuba and Jamaica benefitted from the economic devastation of Haiti; Coffee and sugar became popular and they were able to meet the market demand ii. Haiti controlled their conjoined country Santo Domingo from 1822 -1844 iii. Inspired rebellions in British territories; 1816 Barbados Emancipation War iv. The revolution was used by Abolitionists to highlight the ills of slavery v. Whites became fearful throughout the Caribbean; government were cruel to Maroons

The Barbados Emancipation War, Bussa Rebellion, 1816
Commenced on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1816 around 8:30 p.m on Bailey Plantation in St. Phillip Lasted approx. 3 days due to superior weaponry of whites and lack of uniform participation Causes of the rebellion:

The slaves thought the Registry Bill passed in 1814 was a bill of freedom and that the whites were trying to deny them it Leaders of the rebellion:
General Bussa ( declared a National Hero of Barbados)
Roach
Jackey
Mingo
Nanny Grigg
J.R Sarjeant ( freed coloured)
Washington Franklyn ( freed coloured)
Cain Davis( freed coloured)
Property was damaged
There was an element of surprise- planters thought they were docile and would not revolt because of their priveleges The 1823 Demerara Revolt
The leaders:
Quamina
Jack- Q
Quamina’s son
John Wray
thought to be John Smith by the planters
missionary of the Bethel Chapel
John Smith
accused of being a part of the rebellion by the planters
was not a part of the rebellion
reverend of the church that the leaders were members of
was imprisoned wrongfully
Causes of the Rebellion:
i. Slaves thought the amelioration bill was passed for their emancipation ii. Slaves wanted their freedom
was well coordinated and supported by 30000 slaves
was unsuccessful and quickly put down
drew the attention of the British antislavery groups

The 1831 Revolt in Jamaica/ The Baptist War/ The Christmas Rebellion Reported by the police to have begun on Tuesday 27 December 1831 Started on either Kensington Pen or Salt Spring Plantation both outside Montego Bay. Causes of the rebellion

i. The mixed- race received full equality with the enslavers and the Africans believed they too should become emancipated and equal. ii. Governor, Lord Belmore’s statement on the 22nd December that slavery was not abolished iii. The slaves knew that the British government was fighting against slavery

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