Blood is a connective tissue. Blood has three general functions transpotation of oxygen, carbondioxide, nutrients and hormones to and from the body; regulation, blood regulates pH(normal pH is 7.35-7.45) and body temperature; protection, blood is able to clot after an injury thus protecting execessive blood loss and white blood cells protect the body against disease. Components of blood are plasma which is the liquid part of blood and formed elements which are cell fragments including platelets. There are two types of cells in blood, red blood cells (RBC’s) or erythrocytes and white blood cells (WBC’s) or leukocytes. Hematocrit is the percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC’s. Hematocrit is measured in percentages. Normal ranges of hematocrit in females is between 38-46% and for males is 40-54%. Lower than normal hematocrit levels could indicate anemia, loss of red blood cells, malnutrition, leukemia, nutritional defeciencies such as lack of iron, vitamin B12 and B6. Bacterial infection will lower the number of red blood cells due to increase of white blood cells thus lowering the hematocrit percentage. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells that help carry out cell mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses1. Lymphocytes have a longer lifespan than other formed elements of blood which are continually dying and replaced within hours, days or weeks. A person with Type B blood can receive Type O because Type O blood is a universal donor. Lymphocytes is a white blood cell that has a round nucleus surrounded by blue halo of cytoplasm with no visible granules. They have B cells that differentiate into cells that produce antibodies, T cells that attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancers, some bacteria, allergic reactions, natural killer cells that attack wide variety of infectious microbes and certain spontaneously arising tumor cells.2. Basophils are white blood cells that contain dense blue-purple granules that hide the nucleus....
References: Jenkins, G., Kennits, c., and Tortora, G. (2007). Anatomy and Physiology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Notes from Dr Bruce Anderson, GE 259, Chapter XVIII Blood, fall semester 2012.
Itt-Tech Earth City
Anatomy and Physiology 2
Dr. Bruce Anderson
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