CARGO

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Dunnage - is any type of material used to protect the ship and the cargo. Generally, rough finished, low-grade lumber is used, but you can also use burlap, cardboard, heavy paper, and metal battens. The main function of dunnage is to make the cargoan integral part of the ship thereby protecting both the ship and the cargo. Dunnage has the following specific uses: PREVENTS CHAFING—Dunnage prevents one article from robbing against another. PREVENTS MOVEMENT—also shows dunnage between the last two bombs. It fills space which, if left unfilled, would permit the bombs to shift. PROVIDES SEPARATION OF CARGO—Material such as burlap or heavy paper may be effectively used to separate types of lots of material.
Types of Dunnage Wooden dunnage made of squared lumber, planks, boards, slats and battens, are very suitable for distributing pressure, bridging or lining cavities and gaps, creating air channels and enhancing friction. If wooden dunnage is laid too tightly, it impedes air circulation (this is a particular consideration for ventilated containers), causes a significant loss of stowage space and thus increases costs. Large spaces promote air circulation but can cause mechanical damage to the packages if the load-bearing area is too small. Wood easily absorbs moisture and releases it into the environment at a low vapor pressure. If it has a strong intrinsic odor or has taken up a foreign odor, it must not be used with odor-sensitive loads. Since wood can be infested by pests, only wood which has been impregnated against insects or fumigated may be used on certain trade routes. To distinguish such treated wood from normal wood, it must be appropriately stained or marked in some other way. Wooden boards, wooden panels, walking boards, chipboard and hardboards are very suitable for distributing pressure and have a high loading capacity provided they are sufficiently thick. Since water-repellent, pest-proof or fire-retarding wood is

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