A career can be defined as all the jobs held by a person during his working life. It consists of a series of properly sequenced role experience leading to an increasing level of responsibility, status, power, and rewards. According to Filippo, “a career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity, order, and meaning in a person’s life”. This is the objective view of a person’s career.
However, there is also a subjective element in the concept of career in the sense that changes in attitudes, motivation and values occur as a person grows old. In both the perspectives, the focus is on the individual. Career, thus, represents an organised, well-timed and positive move taken by a person across tune and space. It must be noted here that a person’s career is shaped by many factors, e.g., education, experience, performance, parents, caste links and some occasional luck.
Similarly, while some people like creative personnel and artists may deal independently with shaping their careers, there are others those employed by somebody do not have much scope for their own pursuits and, in turn, career.
What Is Career Planning?
Career planning can be defined as a systematic process by which one decides his/her career goals and the path to reach these goals. For example, one young man decides upon an academic career and establishes the following sequence of positions.
(1) Ph. D. degree by age 26,
(2) Lecturer by 27,
(3) First book published by 30,
(4) Reader by 35,
(5) Professor and the head of the department by 40,
(6) Dean of the school by 45, and
(7) Vice Chancellor of a university by 55.
From an organisation’s view point, career planning stands for the forward looking employment policies of it which take into account the career of individual employees involved in various tasks. It unites organisational human resource planning with individual career needs. Individual career goals and career path in conformity with individual capabilities and aspirations are matched with the manpower planning in a human resource development programme.
This is necessary to properly motivate the people to identify themselves fully with the organisation, and to ensure expected level of organisational commitment. It also develops people for managerial succession. In brief, career planning is a managerial technique for mapping out the entire career of employees from the employment stage to the retirement stage. It involves discovery, development, planned employment and reemployment.
Career Planning Terminologies
Key terms in career planning:
The future positions one strives to reach in his career
The sequential and progressive path or line through which, one moves toward his/ her career goal.
These are the basic drives acquired by an individual during the socialisation process which urge him to take up a career of a certain type. Career Progression:
Making progress in one’s career through a series of right moves in the form of promotions.
A process wherein a senior employee serves in an informal way as a teacher, guide, friend, philosopher and confidante to the new employee in the organisation.
This is the process by which an employee selects career goals and the path to these goals.
The personal improvements one undertakes to achieve a personal career plan.
This is the process of designing and implementing goals, plans and strategies to enable the organisation to satisfy employee needs while allowing individuals to achieve their career goals.
Longitudinal researches conducted by the psychologists have indicated that during the socialisation process, certain attitudinal syndromes are formed early in life. These syndromes are composed of a combination of needs, values, and talents and serve to anchor the person to one or a few related...
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