My aims and key questions are as follows;
“Carding Mill Valley and its river changes downstream from its source.”
1. How and why does the valley width change downstream?
2. How and why does the channel width change downstream?
3. How and why channel cross-section change downstream?
4. How and why does the average velocity change downstream? 5. How and why does the channel gradient change downstream? 6. How and why does the bed-load change downstream?
7. How and why does the human land use of the valley change as the river moves downstream and does this impact on the river?
Carding mill valley is in Shropshire, England. It is 22.5km northwest of Droitwich; it is part of long mynd. The valley in total stretches 2 miles and spans 5 sq miles in total. The long mynd is a stretch of hills literally translated from welsh as Long Mountain, they stretch for 7 miles. The valley cuts into the long mynd so therefore it is part of the hills. The valley has a few types of vegetation on top of grass such as heather, bracken, bilberry and gorse. There is also an abundance of animals especially sheep and birds, there is also a disused reservoir which will have a lot of aquatic life. The valley was formed 600 years ago by volcanic activity. The rocks in the hills and valley are 560 million years old. At the top of the valley there is a waterfall that is called tight spout waterfall that is fuelled by 900mm of rainfall they get each year. The valley is now maintained and looked after by the national trust, which initially took over in 1965 and then completely took over in 1979. In the valley there is now a shop, café and a gabion that is helping prevent the erosion. In the valley you can simply go for a walk or partake in some more exciting activities such as hang gliders, there is also a tearoom with great views and surroundings.
We can see from my climate graph that there are general trends such as mild temperatures in autumn and spring but really quite cold temperatures in the winter and very warm temperatures in the summer, the temperature go from a low of 2 degrees in December to a high of 16 in July. Yet again there are trends in the amount of rainfall, firstly there is rain all year round but the heaviest is found in November with 99 mm of rain and the low is found in July with 29 mm of rain. Carding mill valley is found in a temperate climate, which is the same as the whole of the United Kingdom, this means there are no extremes of rainfall or temperatures.
Measurements we took
1) Valley width.
2) Channel width.
3) Channel depth.
6) Bed load (longest axis and shape)
1) Valley width
We use this tape measure to measure how wide the valley was. We measured from where there was an incline in height on one side to the same on the other.
1) Channel width
We use the tape measure again to measure how wide the channel of water was. We simply measured from one side of the channel to the other.
3) Channel depth
When we measured the channel depth we put a tape measure across the channel and then we put a metre ruler into the water and measured how deep the water is in cm. we did this every 25 cm.
To measure the gradient we put ranging poles into the ground or riverbed at distances of 10 metres apart we used 3 poles in total. We then lined up the sights of the clinometer up with the two second red stripes on two of the poles as shown above.
To measure the velocity of the river we place a cork in the river and timed how long it took for it to travel 10 metres.
6) Bed load (longest axis and shape)
To measure the bed load we selected 6 rocks from the bed of...
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