Composites Science and Technology 61 (2001) 1899–1912 www.elsevier.com/locate/compscitech
Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review Erik T. Thostensona, Zhifeng Renb, Tsu-Wei Choua,*
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA b Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167, USA Received 1 May 2001; received in revised form 19 June 2001; accepted 21 June 2001
Abstract Since their ﬁrst observation nearly a decade ago by Iijima (Iijima S. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon Nature. 1991; 354:56–8), carbon nanotubes have been the focus of considerable research. Numerous investigators have since reported remarkable physical and mechanical properties for this new form of carbon. From unique electronic properties and a thermal conductivity higher than diamond to mechanical properties where the stiﬀness, strength and resilience exceeds any current material, carbon nanotubes oﬀer tremendous opportunities for the development of fundamentally new material systems. In particular, the exceptional mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, combined with their low density, oﬀer scope for the development of nanotubereinforced composite materials. The potential for nanocomposites reinforced with carbon tubes having extraordinary speciﬁc stiﬀness and strength represent tremendous opportunity for application in the 21st century. This paper provides a concise review of recent advances in carbon nanotubes and their composites. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the structure and processing of carbon nanotubes, as well as characterization and property modeling of carbon nanotubes and their composites. # 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction In the mid 1980s, Smalley and co-workers at Rice University developed the chemistry of fullerenes . Fullerenes are geometric cage-like structures of carbon atoms that are composed of hexagonal and pentagonal faces. The ﬁrst closed, convex structure formed was the C60 molecule. Named after the architect known for designing geodesic domes, R. Buckminster Fuller, buckminsterfullerene is a closed cage of 60 carbon atoms where each side of a pentagon is the adjacent side of a hexagon similar to a soccer ball (the C60 molecule is often referred to as a bucky ball) . A few years later, their discovery led to the synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Nanotubes are long, slender fullerenes where the walls of the tubes are hexagonal carbon (graphite structure) and often capped at each end. These cage-like forms of carbon have been shown to exhibit exceptional material properties that are a * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-302-831-2421; fax: +1-302-8313619. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (T.-W. Chou).
consequence of their symmetric structure. Many researchers have reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes that exceed those of any previously existing materials. Although there are varying reports in the literature on the exact properties of carbon nanotubes, theoretical and experimental results have shown extremely high elastic modulus, greater than 1 TPa (the elastic modulus of diamond is 1.2 TPa) and reported strengths 10–100 times higher than the strongest steel at a fraction of the weight. Indeed, if the reported mechanical properties are accurate, carbon nanotubes may result in an entire new class of advanced materials. To unlock the potential of carbon nanotubes for application in polymer nanocomposites, one must fully understand the elastic and fracture properties of carbon nanotubes as well as the interactions at the nanotube/ matrix interface. Although this requirement is no different from that for conventional ﬁber-reinforced composites , the scale of the reinforcement phase diameter has changed from micrometers (e.g. glass and carbon ﬁbers) to nanometers. In addition to the exceptional...
References:  Iijima S. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 1991; 354:56–8.  Kroto HW, Heath JR, O’Brien SC, Curl RF, Smalley RE. C60: Buckminsterfullerene. Nature 1985;318:162–3.  Chou T-W. Microstructural design of ﬁber composites. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992.  Collins PG, Avouris P. Nanotubes for electronics. Scientiﬁc American 2000;283(6):62–9.  Fan S, Chapline MG, Franklin NR, Tombler TW, Cassell AM, Dai H. Self-oriented regular arrays of carbon nanotubes and their ﬁeld emission properties. Science 1999;283:512–4.  Wong SS, Joselevich E, Woolley AT, Cheung CL, Lieber CM. Covalently functionalized nanotubes as nanometre-sized probes in chemistry and biology. Nature 1998;394:52–5.  Rueckes T, Kim K, Joselevich E, Tseng GY, Cheung C-L, Lieber CM. Carbon nanotube-based nonvolatile random access memory for molecular computing. Science 2000;289:94–7.  Yao Z, Postma HWC, Balents L, Dekker C. Carbon Nanotube Intramolecular Junctions. Nature 1999;402:273–6.  Dresselhaus MS, Dresselhaus G, Eklund PC. Science of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. San Diego: Academic Press, 1996.  Yakobson BI, Brabec CJ, Bernholc J. Nanomechanics of carbon tubes: instabilities beyond linear range. Physical Review Letters 1996;76(14):2511–4.  Yakobson BI, Samsonidze G. Atomistic theory of mechanical relaxation in fullerene nanotubes. Carbon 2000;38(11-12):1675–80.  Nardelli MB, Yakobson BI, Bernholc J. Brittle and ductile behavior in carbon nanotubes. Physical Review Letters 1998; 81(21):4656–9.  Iijima S, Ichlhashi T. Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter. Nature 1993;363:603–5.  Bethune DS, Kiang CH, Devries MS, Gorman G, Savoy R, Vazquez J, et al. Cobalt-catalyzed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls. Nature 1993;363:605–7.  Journet C, Maser WK, Bernier P, Loiseau A, de la Chapelle ML, Lefrant S, et al. Large-scale production of single-walled carbon nanotubes by the electric-arc technique. Nature 1997;388:756–8.
E.T. Thostenson et al. / Composites Science and Technology 61 (2001) 1899–1912  Salvetat JP, Briggs GAD, Bonard JM, Bacsa RR, Kulik AJ, Stockli T et al. Elastic and shear moduli of single-walled carbon ¨ nanotube ropes. Physical Review Letters 1999;82(5):944–7.  Walters DA, Ericson LM, Casavant MJ, Liu J, Colbert DT, Smith KA, et al. Elastic strain of freely suspended single-wall carbon nanotube ropes. Applied Physics Letters 1999;74(25):3803–5.  Yu MF, Lourie O, Dyer M, Moloni K, Kelly T. Strength and breaking mechanism of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under tensile load. Science 2000;287:637–40.  Yu MF, Files BS, Arepalli S, Ruoﬀ RS. Tensile loading of ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes and their mechanical properties. Physical Review Letters 2000;84(24):5552–5.  Xie S, Li W, Pan Z, Chang B, Sun L. Mechanical and physical properties on carbon nanotube. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 2000;61(7):1153–8.  Falvo MR, Clary GJ, Taylor RM, Chi V, Brooks FP, Washburn S et al. Bending and buckling of carbon nanotubes under large strain. Nature 1997;389:582–4.  Bower C, Rosen R, Jin L, Han J, Zhou O. Deformation of carbon nanotubes in nanotube-polymer composites. Applied Physics Letters 1999;74(22):3317–9.  Overney G, Zhong W, Tomanek D. Structural rigidity and low frequency vibrational modes of long carbon tubules. Zeitschrift Fur Physik D-Atoms Molecules and Clusters 1993;27(1):93–6.  Lu JP. Elastic properties of single and multilayered nanotubes. Journal of the Physics and Chemistry of Solids 1997;58(11):1649–52.  Yakobson BI, Campbell MP, Brabec CJ, Bernholc J. High strain rate fracture and C-chain unraveling in carbon nanotubes. Computational Materials Science 1997;8(4):341–8.  Bernholc J, Brabec CJ, Nardelli M, Maiti A, Roland C, Yakobson BI. Theory of growth and mechanical properties of nanotubes. Applied Physics A-Materials Science and Processing 1998; 67(1):39–46.  Iijima S, Brabec C, Maiti A, Bernholc J. Structural ﬂexibility of carbon nanotubes. Journal of Chemical Physics 1996;104(5): 2089–92.  Ru CQ. Eﬀective bending stiﬀness of carbon nanotubes. Physical Review B 2000;62(15):9973–6.  Vaccarini L, Goze C, Henrard L, Hernandez E, Bernier P, Rubio A. Mechanical and electronic properties of carbon and boronnitride nanotubes. Carbon 2000;38(11-12):1681–90.  Al-Jishi R, Dresselhaus G. Lattice dynamical model for graphite. Physical Review B 1982;26(8):4514–22.  Hernandez E, Goze C, Bernier P, Rubio A. Elastic properties of C and BxCyNz composite nanotubes. Physical Review Letters 1998;80(20):4502–5.  Ru CQ. Elastic buckling of single-walled carbon nanotube ropes under high pressure. Physical Review B 2000;62(15):10405–8.  Popov VN, Van Doren VE, Balkanski M. Elastic properties of crystal of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Solid State Communications 2000;114(7):395–9.  Popov VN, Van Doren VE, Balkanski M. Lattice dynamics of singlewalled carbon nanotubes. Physical Review B 1999;59(13):8355–8.  Ruoﬀ RS, Lorents DC. Mechanical and thermal-properties of carbon nanotubes. Carbon 1995;33(7):925–30.  Govindjee S, Sackman JL. On the use of continuum mechanics to estimate the properties of nanotubes. Solid State Communications 1999;110(4):227–30.  Ru CQ. Eﬀect of van der Waals forces on axial buckling of a double-walled carbon nanotube. Journal of Applied Physics 2000;87(10):7227–31.  Ru CQ. Column buckling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with interlayer radial displacements. Physical Review B 2000;62(24): 16962–7.  Ru CQ. Degraded axial buckling strain of multiwalled carbon nanotubes due to interlayer slips. Journal of Applied Physics 2001;89(6):3426–33.
 Kolmogorov AN, Crespi VH. Smoothest bearings: interlayer sliding in multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Physical Review Letters 2000;85(22):4727–30.  Shaﬀer MSP, Windle AH. Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotube/poly (vinyl alcohol) Composites. Advanced Materials 1999;11(11):937–41.  Qian D, Dickey EC, Andrews R, Rantell T. Load transfer and deformation mechanisms in carbon nanotube-polystyrene composites. Applied Physics Letters 2000;76(20):2868–70.  Tibbetts GG, McHugh J. Mechanical properties of vapor-grown carbon ﬁber composites with thermoplastic matrices. Journal of Materials Research 1999;14:2871.  Jia Z, Wang Z, Xu C, Liang J, Wei B, Wu Detal. Study on poly(methyl methacrylate)/carbon nanotube composites. Materials Science and Engineering A 1999;271(1–2):395–400.  Gong X, Liu J, Baskaran S, Voise RD, Young JS. Surfactantassisted processing of carbon nanotube/polymer Composites. Chemistry of Materials 2000;12(4):1049–52.  Lordi V, Yao N. Molecular mechanics of binding in carbonnanotube-polymer composites. Journal of Materials Research 2000;15(12):2770–9.  Wagner HD, Lourie O, Feldman Y, Tenne R. Stress-induced fragmentation of multiwall carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix. Applied Physics Letters 1998;72(2):188–90.  Lourie O, Wagner HD. Transmission electron microscopy observations of fracture of single-wall carbon nanotubes under axial tension. Applied Physics Letters 1998;73(24):3527–9.  Lourie O, Wagner HD. Buckling and collapse of embedded carbon nanotubes. Physical Review Letters 1998;81(8):1638– 41.  Lourie O, Wagner HD. Evidence of stress transfer and formation of fracture clusters in carbon nanotube-based composites. Composites Science and Technology 1999;59(6):975–7.  Cooper CA, Young RJ, Halsall M. Investigation into the deformation of carbon nanotubes and their composites through the use of raman spectroscopy. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 2001;32(3-4):401–11.  Ajayan PM, Schadler LS, Giannaris C, Rubio A. Single-walled nanotube-polymer composites: strength and weaknesses. advanced materials 2000;12(10):750–3.  Schadler LS, Giannaris SC, Ajayan PM. Load transfer in carbon nanotube epoxy composites. Applied Physics Letters 1998;73(26): 3842–4.  Jin L, Bower C, Zhou O. Alignment of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix by mechanical stretching. Applied Physics Letters 1998;73(9):1197–9.  Haggenmueller R, Gommans HH, Rinzler AG, Fischer JE, Winey KI. Aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes composites by melt processing methods. Chemical Physics Letters 2000;330(3-4): 219–25.  Gommans HH, Alldredge JW, Tashiro H, Park J, Magnuson J, Rinzler AG. Fibers of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes: polarized raman spectroscopy. Journal of Applied Physics 2000; 88(5):2509–14.  Andrews R, Jacques D, Rao AM, Rantell T, Derbyshire F, Chen Yetal. Nanotube composite carbon ﬁbers. Applied Physics Letters 1999;75(9):1329–31. ´  Vigolo B, Penicaud A, Coulon C, Sauder C, Pailler R, Journet C et al. Macroscopic ﬁbers and ribbons of oriented carbon nanotubes. Science 2000;290:1331–4.  Ma RZ, Wu J, Wei BQ, Liang J, Wu DH. Processing and properties of carbon nanotubes-nano-SiC ceramic. Journal of Materials Science 1998;33(21):5243–6. `  Flahaut E, Peigney A, Laurent Ch, Marliere Ch, Chastel F, Rousset A. Carbon nanotube-metal-oxide nanocomposites: microstructure, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. Acta Materialia 2000;48(14):3803–12.
E.T. Thostenson et al. / Composites Science and Technology 61 (2001) 1899–1912  Peigney A, Laurent Ch, Rousset A. Synthesis and characterization of alumina matrix nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes. Key Engineering Materials 1997;132-136:743–6.  Chen X, Xia J, Peng J, Li W, Xie S. Carbon-nanotube metalmatrix composites prepared by electroless plating. Composites Science and Technology 2000;60(2):301–6.  Xu CL, Wei BQ, Ma RZ, Liang J, Ma XK, Wu DH. Fabrication of aluminum-carbon nanotube composites and their electrical properties. Carbon 1999;37(5):855–8.
 Peigney A, Laurent Ch, Flahaut E, Rousset A. Carbon nanotubes in novel ceramic matrix nanocomposites. Ceramics International 2000;26(6):667–83.  Peigney A, Laurent Ch, Dumortier O, Rousset A. Carbon nanotubes-Fe-alumina nanocomposites. Part I: inﬂuence of the Fe content on the synthesis of powders. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 1998;18(14):1995–2004.  Peigney A, Laurent Ch, Dumortier O, Rousset A. Carbon nanotubes-Fe-alumina nanocomposites. Part II: microstructure and mechanical properties of the hot-pressed composites. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 1998;18(14):2005–13.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document