CARSHARING IN NORTH AMERICA:
MARKET GROWTH, CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS, AND FUTURE POTENTIAL
Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D. Honda Distinguished Scholar in Transportation, University of California, Davis, & Policy and Behavioral Research Program Leader, California PATH University of California, Berkeley th 1357 S. 46 Street. Bldg 452; Richmond, CA 94804-4648 510-665-3483 (O); 510-665-3537 (F); firstname.lastname@example.org Adam P. Cohen Student Researcher, California PATH University of California, Berkeley 1357 S. 46th Street. Bldg 452; Richmond, CA 94804-4648 510-665-3646 (O); 510-665-3537 (F); email@example.com and J. Darius Roberts Graduate Student Researcher, California PATH/UC Davis Campus University of California, Berkeley th 1357 S. 46 Street. Bldg 452; Richmond, CA 94804-4648 510-665-3616 (O); 510-665-3537 (F); firstname.lastname@example.org
Submission for the Transportation Research Board November 15, 2005
Manuscript Word Count: 7,500
Shaheen, Cohen, Roberts ABSTRACT
Carsharing provides members access to a fleet of autos for short-term use throughout the day, reducing the need for one or more personal vehicles. Over ten years ago, carsharing operators began to appear in North America. Since 1994, a total of 40 programs have been deployed—28 are operating in 36 urban areas, and 12 are now defunct. Another four are planned to launch in the next year. This paper examines carsharing growth potential in North America, based on a survey of 26 existing organizations conducted from April to July 2005. Since the mid-1990s, the number of members and vehicles supported by carsharing in the U.S. and Canada continues to grow, despite program closures. The three largest providers in the U.S. and Canada both support 94% of the total carsharing membership. Growth potential in major metropolitan regions is estimated at 10% of individuals over the age of 21 in North America. While carsharing continues to gain popularity and market share, the authors conclude that increased carsharing education, impact evaluation, and supportive policy approaches, including mainstreaming carsharing as a transportation strategy, would aid the ongoing expansion and development of this alternative to private vehicle ownership. KEYWORDS: Carsharing, markets, policy
Shaheen, Cohen, Roberts INTRODUCTION
Auto ownership is widespread in North America. In 2001, 92.1% of U.S. and 78.2% of Canadian households owned at least one vehicle (1, 2). Over 60% of U.S. and 36% of Canadian households owned two or more vehicles (3, 2). Not surprisingly, transportation represents the second and third largest consumer expenditures in the U.S. (19.1%) and Canada (13.66%), respectively (4, 5). With auto ownership and fuel costs rising, individuals are seeking alternatives to private vehicle ownership. Short-term auto rentals or carsharing programsthrough hourly rates and subscription-access plansprovide such an alternative, especially for individuals living in major urban areas, households with one or more vehicles, and those with access to other transportation modes, such as transit and carpooling. The principle of carsharing is simple: Individuals gain the benefits of private vehicle use without the costs and responsibilities of ownership. Instead of owning one or more vehicles, a household or business accesses a fleet of shared-use autos on an as-needed basis. Individuals gain access to vehicles by joining an organization that maintains a fleet of cars and light trucks in a network of locations. Generally, participants pay a fee each time they use a vehicle (6, 7). Carsharing became popularized in Europe in the mid- to late-1980s. At present, nearly 300,000 individuals belong to carsharing organizations worldwide. Since 1994, a total of 40 programs have been deployed in North America—28 are operating in 36 urban regions, and 12 are now defunct. Another four are planned to launch in the next year. Common goals among North American carsharing...
References: 1. Hsu, P.S. and T.R. Reuscher. Summary of Travel Trends: 2001 National Household Transportation Survey. 2004. http://www.bts.gov/publications/highlights_of_the_2001_national_household_travel_survey/htm l/table_a04.html. Accessed July 31, 2005. 2. Access to the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. Ithaca: New Strategist Publications, Inc., Ithaca, 2004. 3. Canadian Statistics. Selected Dwelling Characteristics and Household (Household electronics and vehicles). 2003. http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/famil09c.htm. Accessed July 31, 2005. 4. U.S. Department of Labor. Consumer Expenditures in 2002 (Report 974). February, 2004. http://www.bls.gov/cex/csxann02.pdf. Accessed July 31, 2005. 5. Canadian Statistics. Average Household Expenditures by Provinces and Territories. http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/famil16a.htm. Accessed July 31, 2005. 6. Shaheen, S., D. Sperling, and C. Wagner. Carsharing in Europe and North America: Past Present and Future. Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 52, 1998, No. 3, pp. 35-52. 7. Shaheen, S. Dynamics in Behavioral Adaptation to a Transportation Innovation: A Case Study of CarLink—A Smart Carsharing System. UCD-ITS-RR-99-16. Davis: Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, 1999. 8. Shaheen, S., A. Schwartz, and K. Wipyewski. Policy Considerations for Carsharing and Station Cars, Transportation Research Record, No. 1887, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2004, pp. 128-136. 9. Katzev, R. Car Sharing: A New Approach to Urban Transportation Problems. In Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2003, pp. 65-86. http://www.asapspssi.org/pdf/katzev.pdf. Accessed July 31, 2005. 10. Shaheen, S., M. Meyn, and K. Wipyewski. U.S. Shared-Use Vehicle Findings on Carsharing and Station Car Growth, Transportation Research Record, No. 1841, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2003, pp. 90-98.
Shaheen, Cohen, Roberts
11. Robert, B. Potentiel de L’Auto-Partage Dans Le Cadre d’Une Politique de Gestion de La Demande en Transport. Forum de L 'AQTR, Gaz à Effet de Serre: Transport et Développement, Kyoto: Une Opportunité d’Affaires? Montréal, 2000. 12. Jensen, N. The Co-operative Auto Network Social and Environmental Report 2000-2001. http://www.cooperativeauto.net/benefits/report.pdf. Accessed July 31, 2005. 13. Autoshare. News. http://www.autoshare.com/aboutus_news.html. Accessed July 31, 2005. 14. Lane, C. Philly CarShare: First-Year Social and Mobility Impacts of Car Sharing in Philadelphia. Transportation Research Record, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Forthcoming 2005. 15. Price J. and C. Hamiliton. Arlington Pilot Carshare Program. First-Year Report. Arlington County Commuter Services, Division of Transportation. Department of Environmental Services. Arlington, VA, April, 2005. 16. Katzev, R. Carsharing Portland: Review and Analysis of Its First Year. Department of Environmental Quality, Portland, OR, 1999. http://www.publicpolicyresearch.net/documents/CSP_first_year_eval.PDF. Accessed July 31, 2005. 17. Zipcar. Zipcar Customer Survey Shows Car-Sharing Leads to Car Shedding. http://www.zipcar.com/press/releases/press-21. Accessed July 31, 2005. 18. Flexcar. Impact. http://www.flexcar.com/vision/impact.asp. Accessed July 31, 2005. 19. Rydén, C. and E. Morin. Mobility Services for Urban Sustainability. Environmental Assessment. Report WP 6. Trivector Traffic AB. Stockholm, Sweden, January, 2005. http://184.108.40.206/moses/Downloads/reports/del_6.pdf. Accessed July 31, 2005. 20. Millard-Ball, A., G. Murray, J. Burkhardt, and J. ter Schure. Car-Sharing: Where and How it Succeeds Final Report. TCRP Project B-26. TRB, National Research Council, Washington D.C., Forthcoming 2005. 21. Lane, C. PhillyCarShare Press Release. PhillyCarShare Members Give Up Hundreds of Cars. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Jan. 07, 2004. 22. Cooper, G., D. Howes, and P. Mye. The Missing Link: An Evaluation of CarSharing Portland Inc. Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Portland, 2000. 23. City CarShare. News. First-Ever Study of Car-Sharing. January 7, 2004. http://www.citycarshare.org/about/news/archives/000014.shtml. Accessed July 31, 2005. 24. Reynolds, E. and K. McLaughlin. Autoshare. The Smart Alternative to Owning a Car Brochure, 2001.
Shaheen, Cohen, Roberts 25. Litman, T. Evaluating Carsharing Benefits. In Transportation Research Record: No. 1702, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2000, pp. 31-35. 26. Calgary Alternative Transportation Cooperative. Carsharing. http://www.catcoop.org/carsharing.html. Accessed July 31, 2005. 27. Shaheen, S. and M. Meyn. Shared-Use Vehicle Services: A Survey of North American Market Developments. In ITS World Congress 2002. Chicago, Illinois, October 2002.
28. City of Toronto. Toronto Atmospheric Fund. http://www.toronto.ca/taf/grantsapproved.htm. Accessed July 30, 2005. 29. The People’s Car. Project Funders. http://www.peoplescar.org/pages/projectfund.html. Accessed July 30, 2005. 30. Texas Building and Procurement Commission. State Vehicle Fleet Management Plan. http://www.tbpc.state.tx.us/fleet/VehicleFleetManagement.html. Accessed July 29, 2005. 31. Shaheen, S., J. Wright and D. Sperling. California’s Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate. In Transportation Research Record 1791, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2002, pp. 113-120. 32. City of Vancouver. Parking By-Laws (No. 6059). Sections 2-4. June 14, 2005. http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/BYLAWS/parking/parking.htm. Accessed July 29, 2005. 33. City of Seattle. Parking Quantity Exceptions. Seattle Municipal Code Section 23.54.020. http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~scripts/nphbrs.exe?s1=23.54.020&s2=&S3=&Sect4=AND&l=20&Sect1=IMAGE&Sect3=PLURON&Sect 5=CODE1&d=CODE&p=1&u=%2F%7Epublic%2Fcode1.htm&r=1&Sect6=HITOFF&f=G. Accessed July 29, 2005. 34. City of Cambridge. Parking and Transportation Demand Management Planning: Parking and Space Registration. Cambridge Municipal Code Section 10.18. http://bpc.iserver.net/codes/cbridge/_DATA/Title_10/18/index.html. Accessed July 29, 2005. 35. Enoch, M. Supporting Car Share Clubs: A Worldwide Review. 3rd Mobility Services for Urban Sustainability (MOSES) Meeting. London, U.K., Feb. 2002. 36. United States Green Building Council. Green Building Rating System For New Construction & Major Renovations Version 2.2. December 2004. http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/LEEDdocs/NCCC%20v2%202%20MASTER_public_1_clean.pdf. Accessed July 29, 2005. 37. City of Berkeley. Berkeley and City Carshare to Make History – First Shared Municipal Fleet in the U.S. July 15, 2004. http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/mayor/PR/pressrelease20040715.htm. Accessed July 29, 2005.
Shaheen, Cohen, Roberts 38. City of Philadelphia. Car Share: Vehicle for Change. May 5, 2005. http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/news/opinion/local2/region/11565534.htm. Accessed July 29, 2005. 39. City of Alexandria. Alexandria Rideshare. http://www.alexride.org/carsharing.html. Accessed July 29, 2005. 40. Car Plus. Key Lessons Learned From A World Wide Car Club Tour. http://www.carclubs.org.uk/carclubs/N-Amer-tour.htm. Accessed July 29, 2005.
41. Metropolitan Planning Commission. Low Income Flexible Transportation Program (LIFT). http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/welfare_to_work/lift.htm. Accessed July 29, 2005. 42. Flexcar. Flexcar Extends Car-Sharing Program. March 28, 2005. http://www.flexcar.com/company/pr/pr032805.asp. Accessed July 29, 2005. 43. Portland State University. Alternative Transportation. https://www.aux.pdx.edu/transport/alternative.php#Employee_Passport. Accessed July 29, 2005. 44. Hourcar. Rates & Hubs. http://www.hourcar.org/rates_content.html. Accessed July 29, 2005. 45. Oregon Department of Energy. Business Energy Tax Credit Pass-through Option. http://www.energy.state.or.us/bus/tax/pass-through.htm. Accessed July 29, 2005. 46. Washington State Legislature. Transportation Demand Management. – Requirements for Counties and Cities RCW 70.94.527. http://www.leg.wa.gov/RCW/index.cfm?section=70.94.527&fuseaction=section. Accessed July 29, 2005. 47. Minnesota Senate. 2004 Omnibus Minnesota Tax Bill. http://www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/bin/bldbill.php?billS2302.1&session=1s83. Accessed July 29, 2005. 48. Schwartz, S. Carsharing Gains Ground Among Drivers and Local Governments. April 19, 2005. http://jscms.jrn.columbia.edu/cns/2005-04-19/schwartzs-carsharing. Accessed July 29, 2005. 49. University of California Berkeley Parking and Transportation. City CarShare Is Now On Campus. http://pt.berkeley.edu/citycarshare.html. Accessed July 29, 2005.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document