Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display ''uncontrolled growth'' (division beyond the normal limits), ''invasion'' (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes ''metastasis'' (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood).
There are over 150 types of cancers.
Cancers in teens:- 1. Osteosarcoma
(Pronounced: os-tee-oh-sar-koh-muh) is the most common type of bone cancer. In teens, it can sometimes appear during their growth spurts and tends to show up in people who are taller than average. In most cases, there is no known cause for osteosarcoma. Fig. 1. Leg affected by Osteosarcoma
The most common symptoms of osteosarcoma are pain and swelling in an arm or leg that is sometimes accompanied by a lump. Some people have more pain at night or when they exercise. Osteosarcoma is most often found in the bones around the knee but can occur in other bones as well. In some cases, a tumour can spread or metastasize (when cells from a tumour break away from the original cancer site and travel to a different tissue or organ) to the lungs and other bones.
Treatment for osteosarcoma usually involves chemotherapy (medication that kills cancer cells) as well as surgery to remove the tumour. A doctor may perform limb-salvage surgery, where the bone that has cancer is removed and the limb (usually an arm or leg) is saved from amputation by filling the gap with a bone graft or special metal rod. In other cases, a doctor may need to amputate (remove) part or the entire limb to fight the cancer.
Most people develop side effects, such as hair loss, bleeding, infections, and heart or skin problems, from medicines used in chemotherapy treatment for osteosarcoma. Chemotherapy may also increase the person's risk of developing other cancers in the future. The good news is that most teens