1. Buck is four human years old.
2. Buck’s life on the farm in Santa Clara Valley was pleasurable and abundant. On the farm, the hierarchy consisted of Buck as the aristocrat and then all of the other kennel and house dogs. Buck treated men he knew with trust and respect. 3. When Buck got to Seattle, Buck reacted violently towards all the men, who were trying to lead him out of the crate. Buck was very angry that the men put a rope around his neck and treated him cruelly, and wanted to show the men that he was stronger than them, and that they would never get another rope around his neck. 4. At the hands of the man with the club, Buck lunged towards him, but the man struck Buck. After three strikes, Buck’s strength was gone, and he was defeated. This was his first lesson because he learned that he had no other choice but to obey the man with the club. 5. Buck was beaten, but not broken by the man with the club. This means that Buck’s spirit was beaten, because he had lost against the man. However, his spirit was not fully broken because he thought that encountering the man with the club was a valuable experience, for he learned that there was no way to beat a man with a club. 6. Buck’s impression of Francois and Perrault were fair, wise, and respectable men. Chapter 2
1. Curly naively approached and acted friendly to a husky. The husky ripped her face open, and as Curly fell to the ground, all the other wild dogs closed in and killed her. Buck was hated Spitz for laughing at Curly’s tragic death. 2. Buck slept in a warm hole he dug in the snow.
3. Buck ate fast because of his hunger and the other dogs who were trying to steal his food. 4. Perrault’s job is a messenger of the Canadian Government, and he fed the sled dogs. 5. Buck’s dignity was damaged when the man with the red sweater beat him, which caused him to develop the idea that the man would rule over him. Before, at the farm, Buck was the aristocrat, but now he saw that others are stronger than him, and in order to survive, Buck had to forget about his dignity from the past. 6. The law of the club represents that a man protects themselves with clubs, and that nothing can go against a man with a club. The law of the fang shows that the wild dogs protect themselves and survive with their fangs. 7. The difference between development and regression is that development is a process of changing and becoming greater than before, but regression is moving backwards and returning to a less smart or weaker time. The statement: “His development (or regression) was rapid” implies that Buck was aware of his rapid change, but was not sure if that change was whether greatly improving himself or was returning to a worse condition. 8. London was trying to relay to the reader that Buck was greatly disturbed by Curly’s death. Buck had never seen dogs fight that violently before, and had compassion towards Curly.