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C2 Revision Sheets

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C2 REVISION – CHAPTER 1 – STRUCTURE & BONDING
Fill in the gaps:
When two elements react together they make a _________ substance called a_________. It is _________ to separate the elements after the reaction. Some atoms react by sharing electrons. We call this _________ bonding. Other atoms react by _________ or _________ electrons. We call this _________ bonding. When atoms react in this way they get the electronic structure of a
_________ gas.

Use pictures and words to describe each type of bonding: Ionic

Fill in this table:
Ionic Compound

Ratio of ions in compound Sodium chloride

Na+ : Cl1:1

Magnesium oxide

Formula of compound

Covalent

MgO
Ca2+: Cl1:2

CaCl2

Metallic

Fill in this table of more complicated ions:
Name of ion

Formula of ion

Calcium hydroxide,
Ca(OH)2

hydroxide
NO3CO32Suphate

Example of compound

Mg(NO3)2
Sodium carbonate

CaSO4

KEY WORDS:
Electronic structure
Covalent bonding
Ionic bonding
Proton
Electron
Ion
Giant structure (lattice)
Metallic bonding

ASSESSMENT:

C2 REVISION – CHAPTER 2 – STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES
IONIC COMPOUNDS
What type of force holds the ions together?

SIMPLE COVALENT
MOLECULES

Why can metals be bent and shaped?

How strong are the forces between covalent molecules?
[intermolecular forces]
What are delocalised electrons?

Draw a giant ionic lattice:

How does this affect their melting and boiling point

Why do ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points?

GIANT METALLIC SUBSTANCES

How strong are the forces between atoms in a covalent bond? [intramolecular bonds]

Why do metals conduct electricity?

How are polymers classified: What is nanoscience?

Thermosetting:

Thermosoftening:
Why can ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or dissolved in water?

GIANT COVALENT SUBSTANCES
Why is graphite slippery and conduct electricity?

KEY WORDS:
Giant ionic structures
Intermolecular forces
Macromolecules
Fullerenes
Shape memory alloys
Polymers
Thermosetting /
Thermosoftening
Nanoscience

ASSESSMENT:

C2 REVISION – CHAPTER 3 – HOW MUCH?
Complete the table
Relative
Charge

Relative
Mass

Write how many there are in:
23

Na11
Electrons:

Proton

What is Mr?

Protons:
Neutrons:

Neutron

What is the Mr of C2H5OH?

What is an isotope?
What is a mole?

Electron

What is percentage yield and what is the equation to calculate it?

What is atom economy and what is the equation to calculate it?

Calculate the percentage yield of calcium carbonate when 200tonnes of limestone is used and 98tonnes of carbon dioxide is produced:

How do we identify food additives?

What is Ar?

What is gas chromatography? What is mass spectrometry? Balance the equation and say how many moles of each substance there are:
H2 +
O2 
H2O

What is the symbol for a reversible reaction?
Explain what happens after we add just reactants to a reversible reaction?

KEY WORDS:
Atomic number
Mass number
Isotope
Relative atomic mass
Relative formula mass
Mole
Empirical formula
Molecular formula

ASSESSMENT:

C2 REVISION – CHAPTER 4 – RATES & ENERGY
What do we mean by ‘rate of reaction’? Explain the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction

Explain the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction [think about: kinetic energy & number of collisions]

Draw diagrams to represent it?

Draw diagrams to represent it:

What 4 factors affect the rate of a reaction? What must happen for a reaction to occur? What is the smallest amount of energy that must be overcome for a reaction to occur?

Low concn

High concn

Low temp

High temp

How does surface area affect the rate of reaction?

What do catalysts do?
Explain exothermic reactions:

Explain endothermic reactions:

What happens to them during a reaction?

What energy changes are involved in a reversible reaction? KEY WORDS:
Collision theory
Activation energy
Catalyst
Exothermic
Endothermic
Thermal decomposition

ASSESSMENT:

C2 REVISION – CHAPTER 5 – SALTS & ELECTROLYSIS
What is a base?

What is an alkali

What is produced when an acid and a metal react?

What is electrolysis?

Acid + Metal 

What do we call the substance that is broken down during electrolysis

Give a specific example:
What ions make something acidic? What is the positive electrode called?
What is the negative electrode called?

What is another name for an acid? What is produced when an acid and a base react?

P__________ D__________
What ions make something alkali? Label a diagram showing the electrolysis of copper bromide Acid + Base 
Give a specific example:

What is the pH scale?
How is electrolysis used to extract aluminium? Why to we electrolyse brine?

What is electroplating? What are the half equations? How is it work?

What ions are formed?

KEY WORDS:
Alkalis
Bases
Acids
Neutral
State symbol
Indicator
pH scale

ASSESSMENT:

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