buying behaviour

Topics: Classical conditioning, Consumer behaviour, Marketing Pages: 22 (7946 words) Published: April 22, 2014
2.1 Introduction
The purpose of literature review is to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological which contribute to research topic in hand. Other than that, literature reviews also known as secondary sources, it only reporting the past research and do not unveil any new or original research information. Exploring the factors affecting purchase intention of smart phone. The term consumer behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumer display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluation and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their need. According to Kotler and Armstrong (2001), consumer buying behavior refers to the buying behavior of the individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption. Consumers around the world are different in various factors such as age, income, education level and preferences which may affect the way they avail of goods and services. This behavior then impacts how products and services are presented to the different consumer markets. There are many components which influence consumer behavior namely; cultural, social, personal, and psychological (kotler and Armstrong, 2001). Christ P. (2009) in his book, Marketing Basic stated that factors affecting how customers make decisions are extremely complex. Buyer behavior is deeply rooted in psychology with dashes of sociology thrown in just to make things more interesting. Since every person in the world is different, it is impossible to have simple rules that explain how buying decisions are made. But those who have spent many years analyzing customer activity have presented us with useful “guidelines” in how someone decides whether or not to make a purchase. Customers make purchases in order to satisfy needs. Some of these needs are basic and must be filled by everyone on the planet while others are not required for basic survival and vary depending on the person. It probably makes more sense to classify needs that are not a necessity as wants or desires (Christ P, 2009). Consumer behaviour has been always of great interest to marketers. The knowledge of consumer behaviour helps the marketer to understand how consumers think, feel and select from alternatives like products, brands and the like and how the consumers are influenced by their environment, the reference groups, family, and salespersons and so on. A consumer’s buying behaviour is influenced by cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. Most of these factors are uncontrollable and beyond the hands of marketers but they have to be considered while trying to understand the complex behaviour of the consumers.

Consumer is the study “of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires” (Solomon 1995, 7). In the marketing context, the term „consumer ‟ refers not only to the act of purchase itself, but also to patterns of aggregate buying which include pre-purchase and post-purchase activities. Pre-purchase activity might consist of the growing awareness of a need or want, and a search for and evaluation of information about the products and brands that might satisfy it. Post-purchase activities include the evaluation of the purchased item in use and the reduction of any anxiety which accompanies the purchase of expensive and infrequently-bought items. Each of these has implications for purchase and repurchase and they are amenable in differing degrees to marketer influence (Foxall 1987). Engel, et al. (1986, 5) define consumer behaviour as “those acts of individuals directly involved in obtaining, using, and disposing of economic goods and services, including the decision processes that precede and determine these acts”. Simple observation provides limited insight into the complex nature of consumer...
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