2.1 Definition of Cellular/ Mobile Phones
The Cellular telephone (commonly "mobile phone" or "cell phone" or "hand phone") is a long-range, portable electronic device used for mobile communication. In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, current mobile phones can support many additional services such as SMS for text messaging, e mail, packet switching for access to the Internet, and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception is satellite phones. Cellular telephone is also defined as a type of short-wave analog or digital telecommunication in which a subscriber has a wireless connection from a mobile telephone to a relatively nearby transmitter. The transmitter's span of coverage is called a cell. Generally, cellular telephone service is available in urban areas and along major highways. As the cellular telephone user moves from one cell or area of coverage to another, the telephone is effectively passed on to the local cell transmitter. A cellular telephone is not to be confused with a cordless telephone (which is simply a phone with a very short wireless connection to a local phone outlet). A newer service similar to cellular is personal communications services (PCS).
2.2 Brand preferences and advertisement
Students leant about cellular phone from many sources, mainly from friends and families, through advertisement and from their own experience. Whether a promotion and advertising hurt or help a brand is under-researched (Mela, Gupta & Lehman, 1997). In the long-run, advertisement help brands by making consumer less price sensitive and more loyal. Exposure of an ad is crucial to be effective in changing consumer knowledge, attitude and behavior (Evans,Moutinho & Van Raaj, 1996). And for the ad to be seen, it must grab the attention of its target audience. ‘Ads originality’ as defined from Pietes, Warlop and Wedel, (2002) were easier for customer to remember than ordinary ads by increasing attention to it. This thus increased attention to the brand being advertised. However, regardless of the content, ads for brand leaders are more successful due to the influence of the brand (Simon, 1970). Ads for less popular brands may be less successful even though the content may be good. Liking towards the brand itself can influence liking for the brand (Hawkins, Best & Coney, 1992). However according to study by Biehal, Stephens and Curlo (1992) whether consumers like or dislike an ad does not necessarily lead to brand acceptance or rejection. So, even though consumers may like the ad that they see, it does not necessarily mean that they will go out and buy the brand advertised. Usually the consumer uses their attitude towards the advertisement in brand choice equaled that of attitude towards the brands (AB).
Advertisers must remember that advertising messages are interpreted differently between different genders (Maldonando, Tansuhaj & Muehling, 2003; Hogg & Garrow, 2003; Putrevu, 2001). Previous studies have proven that females were more likely to engage in elaboration than men (Maldonado & Muehling, 2003). Hogg and Garrow (2003) found that women paid more intention about the details of the characters of an ad when asked to analyze advertising messages. They said that this may be explained by the fact that females have a greater tendency than men to consider external information and information related to others. Women are ‘comprehensive processors’ who try to gather all available information about the product.
In building brand preferences, Alreck and Settle (1999) proposed six strategies:
1. Need association- the product/brand linked to need through repeated messages.
2. Mood associations- brands should be associated with good feelings through slogans, songs....
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