CHAPTER 2 (Page 57)
1. Distinguish among the following sets of items, and suggest the significance of each in a research context: a. Concept and construct – A concept is a generally accepted collection of meanings or characteristics that are concrete whereas a construct is image or idea invented for a particular theory or research problem; a construct is an abstract concept. To successfully perform a research, we must form common ground; hence, the need for concepts and constructs. b. Deduction and induction – a deduction is a conclusive inference while an induction is a conclusion from one or more pieces of evidence. c. Operational definition and dictionary definition – an operational definition is a definition based on measurement criteria that have empirical reference while a dictionary definition is based on synonyms. d. Concept and variable – a concept is a generally accepted collection of meanings or characteristics associated with certain events while a variable is value or set of values related to a property being studied. e. Hypothesis and proposition – A hypothesis is a is a declarative statement that states a belief while a proposition is a statement about concepts that may be regarded as true or false. f. Theory and model – a theory is a set of systematically inter-related concepts, definitions and propositions that are advanced to explain and predict phenomena while a model is a representation of a system that is constructed to study some aspect of the system. g. Scientific method and scientific attitude – The scientific method deals with rationalism and empiricism: formal structured proofs and observable, concrete data; the scientific attitude deals with curiosity 2. Describe the characteristics of the scientific method a. Direct observation of phenomena b. Clearly defined variables, methods and procedures c.