Parallel to the evolution that has occurred
in the business world in decades past, is the evolution of views on participative leadership among managers. Participative leadership refers to the manner in which employers have come to treat their employees. This treatment has evolved from days of traditional, autocratic relationships in which employees were told exactly what tasks to do, without regard to their feelings or what intelligent input could be made to today's spectrum of treatment defined by two terms, human relations and human resources. Managers' approaches today, now consider, not only the employees feelings, but the potential added benefits they might be able to bring to the firm. The difference between human relations and human resources lies in the goals and expectations of the manager. With human relations, the manager's primary concern is reducing employee resistance to authority with the satisfaction of the employee's basic needs to feel accomplishment and belonging in the company; secondary is the performance and added benefits the employee may be able to contribute once morale is increased. On the other hand, managers who practices human resources look to empower their employees by encouraging them to take initiative and reach goals by their own capabilities and resources. With the sense of self-accomplishment gained by doing this, it is then that employee morale will be raised. Not only will the employee's presence truly matter, but the company's productivity and success will also be greater. Managers' stances today are headed in the direction of the human resources model, a beneficial move for the welfare of company relations and success, but there are those who still practice human relations. Many companies demonstrate both models, proving employer/employee relationships in today's companies continue to range the spectrum.
Two guiding companies of the human resource model are Lucent Technologies and Miller Brewing Company....
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