African Journal of Business Management Vol.5 (5), pp. 1749-1754, 4 March, 2011 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM ISSN 1993-8233 ©2011 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Business education and entrepreneurial capabilities in Pakistan Amir Gulzar Sindhu1*, Hummayoun Naeem1, M. Iqbal Saif1 and Shahid Mehmood2 1
Foundation University Institute of Engineering and Management Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan. 2 APCOMS, Pakistan. Accepted 18 August, 2010
This study explores the relationships between business education in Pakistani universities and the development of the entrepreneurial capabilities in students. It also focuses upon the potential differentials on entrepreneurial making among public and private universities. This is a cross-sectional casual study using questionnaire for a sample of 320 students of 04 different universities at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Discriminate and regression analyses have been used to analyze the data. Results show relationship, though not very strong, between business education and entrepreneurial capabilities. Moreover, results also reveal that both private and public business schools are responsible for almost equal level of entrepreneurial capabilities. Key words: Entrepreneurship, business education, curriculum development, entrepreneurial capabilities, private and public business schools. INTRODUCTION Governments being unable to employ every person try to resolve the unemployment problem by motivating people to start their own businesses. There is a type of business that may start from small level, even by single owner or more than one owner, but grow with a larger pace by working on a creative idea with significant risk known as entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is responsible for accommodating larger number of employees as the business grows day by day. Studies show that the earning a small business owner makes in his complete life time is equal to the earning an entrepreneur makes in a five years (Megginson, 1997). Entrepreneur is different in attitude towards the management process and business in general (Hisrich et al., 1996). An entrepreneur is an initiator, high risk taker, leader, jack of all trades, visionary etc. There are a number of factors that influence the individual’s personality, behavior and thinking and help one to become entrepreneur. These factors are family background, education, social networks, peer groups, situational factors, etc. An “entrepreneurial perspective” is not born but developed in individuals. Entrepreneurship is a set up that runs one’s business with creativity (Pinchot, 1985). An entrepreneur without having the skills and abilities necessary to plan and run business activities successfully may lose everything. So business education is vital for a person to get success. There may be a number of inspirational elements for the decision to become entrepreneur including business education. Number of foreign universities now offers a complete MBA in Entrepreneurship (Hisrich et al., 1996). In Pakistan the education in entrepreneurship is an upcoming field. Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has suggested/advised all the universities to include courses on entrepreneurship and creativity at undergraduate and graduate level in their business schools. Problem statement This study intended to explore the influence of business education of Pakistan on the development of entrepreneurial capabilities and whether there is any difference between public and private business schooling in entrepreneurial making.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com. Tel: +92 321 5306042.
Afr. J. Bus. Manage.
Originality of the study According to Geert Hofstead (1983), Pakistani culture is different as compared to the areas where entrepreneurial studies were conducted. In Pakistan studies on entrepreneurship are very scarce. None of the researcher conducted the study to explore the effect of the business...
References: Alberta C, Gray D (2000). Libecap, Insghts: A Kauffman Research Series, Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership. st Donald FK (2004) Entrepreneurship Education in the 21 Century: From Legitimization to Leadership. A Coleman Foundation White Paper USASBE National Conference January 16. Gartner WB, Vesper KH (1994). Executive forum: Experiments in entrepreneurship education: Successes and failures. J. Bus. Vent., 9: 179-187. Gorman G, Hanlon D, King W (1997). Some research perspectives on entrepreneurship education, enterprise education, and education for small business management: A ten year literature review. Int. Small Bus. J., 56-77. Hills GE (1988). Variations in university entrepreneurship education: An empirical study of an evolving field. J. Bus. Vent., 3: 109-122. Hisrich PS (1996). Entrepreneurship, sixth edition. 19, 20, 21: 64-65 nd James MH (1997). Essential of sociology: down to earth approach, 2 edition. 88, 309: 341-344.
Kuratko DF, Hodgetts RM (2004). Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process. Practice Mason, OH; South-Western Publishers. McMullen WE, Long WA (1987). Entrepreneurship education in the nineties. J. Bus. Vent., 2: 261-275. Megginson WL (1997). Small Business Management, second edition. 24. Ronstadt R (1987). The educated entrepreneurs: A new era of entrepreneurial education is beginning. Am. J. Small Bus., 11(4): 3753. Ronstadt R (1990). “The educated entrepreneurs: A new era of entrepreneurial education is beginning.” In: C.A. Kent (Ed.) Entrepreneurship Education. New York: Quorum Books. 69-88. Sexton DL, Upton NE (1987). Evaluation of an innovative approach to teaching entrepreneurship. J. Small Bus. Manage., 25(1): 35-43. Solomon GT, Duffy S, Tarabishy A (2002). The state of entrepreneurship education in the United States: A nationwide survey and analysis. Int. J. Entrepr. Educ., 1(1): 65-86. Vesper KH, Gartner WB (1997). Measuring progress in entrepreneurship education. J. Bus. Vent., 12(5): 403-421. Vesper KH, McMullen WE (1988). Entrepreneurship: Today courses, tomorrow degrees? Entrepr. Theory Pract., 13(1): 7-13. Zeithaml CP, Rice GH (1987). Entrepreneurship/small business education in American universities. J. Small Bus. Manage., 25(1): 44-50.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document