1.) What are the various types of communication? Describe the classification of non-verbal communication. Ans:
Definition of Communication: Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning. In general, communication is a means of connecting people or places. Different Types of Communications are as follows:
Communication involves the imparting or interchanging thoughts, opinions, or information among people by speech, writing, or signs. People communicate in different ways.
Verbal communication entails the use of words in delivering the intended message. The two major forms of verbal communication include written and oral communication.
Written communication includes traditional pen and paper letters and documents, typed electronic documents, e-mails, text chats, SMS and anything else conveyed through written symbols such as language. This type of communication is indispensable for formal business communications and issuing legal instructions. Communication forms that predominantly use written communication include handbooks, brochures, Oral Communication The other form of verbal communication is the spoken word, either face-to-face, or through phone, voice chat, video conferencing or any other medium. Various forms of informal communications such as the grapevine or informal rumor mill, and formal communications such as lectures, conferences are forms of oral communication. Oral communication finds use in discussions and causal and informal conversations. Visual Communication
A type of communication is visual communication through visual aids such as signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, color and other electronic resources.
Non verbal communication entails communicating by sending and receiving wordless messages. They usually reinforce verbal communication, though it can also stand alone and convey messages on its own. Classifications of non-verbal Communication are as follows:
Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world.
Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.
Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.
Body Language and Posture
Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information these nonverbal behaviors can indicate feelings and attitudes, research suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive.
People often refer to their need for "personal space," which is also an important type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics and level of familiarity.
Looking, staring and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When people encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. Looking at another...
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