For ABE Certification
1. What is communication? • Communication is the process of transferring or exchanging ideas, information or opinions by the use of oral, written or graphical media. • Also, expressions and gestures can be used to communicate.
2. Why do we communicate? • To manage any activity
3. Types of Communication • Verbal o Oral o Written o E-mail • Nonverbal o Expressions o Gestures o Body language
4. Basic elements of communication • Message • Understanding • Feedback
5. Communication Process
6. Key Components of communication process • Sender • Need for communication • Idea/information/opinion • Encode • Message • Medium • Channel • Receiver • Decoding • Understanding • Feedback • Motivation
7. Perception and communication 1. Perception is the activity of processing the physical unit of message so that the understanding is modeled as so. 2. Perception is shaped by the beliefs and attitude of a person 3. As perception affects understanding, the success of communication is largely depends upon perception.
8. Barriers to communication: 1. Distortion 2. Inadequate communication skill 3. Lack of listening ability 4. Attitudes 5. Incorrect Information 6. Perceptual bias 7. Information overload 8. Contradictory non verbal message 9. Barrier caused by noise (Outer influence)
9. Overcoming the Barriers: 1. Defining the purpose of communication 2. Timing and means of communication (When and how to communicate) 3. Understanding the receiver 4. Personal communication skill
10. Message, Medium and channel: 1. A message is the encoded information 2. A medium is the nature of expression (Written, Oral etc) 3. A channel is a physical means (Post, Tel, Graph etc)
11. Types of written communication 1. Informal note 2. Memo 3. Letters 4. Forms 5. Questionnaire 6. Notices 7. Reports 8. Press release 9. Training or module documents
12. Merits and demerits of Written communication:
|Merits |Demerits |
|Permanent Record |Lack of personal touch |
|Controlled and selective expression |Words can be misinterpreted |
|Unattached personal feelings |Lack of feed back |
|Time saving (No meeting is require) |Unwanted recording of message |
13. Usage of written communication 1. To have a formal communication process 2. To have proper record of messages 3. To summarise a meeting 4. To respond an communication 5. To acknowledge 6. To invite 7. To mention corporate interest (History, Mission, Vision etc) 8. To state rules
14. Types of Oral communication 1. Unplanned conversation 2. Planned informal conversation 3. Meeting (individual / group / committee / staff meetings) 4. Interview 5. Telephone call 6. Lecture 7. Presentation
15. Merits and demerits of Oral communication
|Merits |Demerits |
|Immediate Feed back |No written record |
|Personal expression |Time consuming |
|Completion of task |Emotional |
|Courtesy |No time to think |
16. Usage of Oral communication 1. Meeting makes decision faster 2. Several opinion can be considered 3. While introducing 4. While negotiating 5. While informing detail developments 6. To invite 7. To convey any fact
17. Importance of non-verbal communication 1. It can communicate approval or disapproval 2. It can be contradictory 3. Reading non-verbal expressions are unavoidable in any business communication
Principles of effective communication: 1. Planning for communication:
Preparation is the basic for any good communication. Preparation comes from proper planning. While considering a plan we need to take four things in account; • Purpose (Of communication) • Audience (To whom): Whom to communicate, how well we know them and how long we know them etc. Depends upon it the audience and communication type changes; 1. The form of communication: written, oral etc. 2. Vocabulary used: by considering the receiver. 3. Style and tone used. • Structure (Flow of situation): materials to use. Salutation, body and closing of the communication. • Style (Formal, informal etc) 2. Acquiring and maintaining information: • Identifying sources i. Define needs ii. Type of source 1. Primary 2. Secondary iii. Range of sources 1. Printed, electronic, permanent, volatile (TV, Book, Normal talk, Internet etc) iv. Specific source: Own notes or records • Consulting Documents i. Available resource: here we need to consider most feasible resource available like; books, record, library access, search (internet) access etc. ii. Libraries or references: Not only the access to the library and a book in related topic going to be informative. Knowing how to extract the information from it also is important. Usually we flip through the index to get a topic; if we need a sub topic we follow the glossary section at the back of the book. iii. Relevancy of resource: significance of the material we are looking for dependence on how fresh or how important it is for the communication. Anything repeated is just a recall, not information. iv. Effective reading: Reading must start with selective but specific material and concentration must be there to understand the text. Also to keep future reference taking some note can be beneficial. • Consulting people How it is important to consult documents like record, books etc. It is also necessary to consult people and get their ideas. Anything comes from this source is a matter to perceive and understand in fastest possible time. i. Range of source and situation: source can be from a formal body like lecture, presentation, gathering (formal or informal) etc. ii. Observation: it is a better source of learning as well. Observation can be by doing as test or by watching the process. Many time observation work as reinforcement also. iii. Listening: A good listener is a good communicator. If we follow the assumption it is necessary to prepare for the listening. The whole process requires concentration, focus, enquiry and clarification of the doubt and note taking for future recall. iv. Questioning: Query always make the speaker to feel that his/her word were listen by the gathering where as audience come up with questioning to utilize the opportunity. Some times questions are welcomed by both the party but in formal meet usually it is ignored. 1. Interview: It is a face to face or telephonic interaction. This only let us judges the interest or enthusiasm of the interviewee. It can be structured or planned or unstructured or unplanned. 2. Written: questionnaire, letter, memo etc. which is specific for each communicator. • Note taking: Summarizing and note taking are skills used to reduce large amounts of information into a synthesized form for later use. It’s mainly about understanding or conceptualizing and recalling in time. Sources of note: a. Written source b. Oral source c. After event General note- taking Skill: • Listen actively - if possible think before you write - but don't get behind. • Be open-minded about points you disagree on. • Raise questions if appropriate. • Develop and use a standard method of note-taking including punctuation, abbreviations, margins, etc. • Leave a few spaces blank as you move from one point to the next so that you can fill in additional points later if necessary. Your objective is to take helpful notes, not to save paper. • Do not try to take down everything that the lecturer says. It is impossible in the first place and unnecessary in the second place because not everything is of equal importance. • Many lecturers attempt to present a few major points and several minor points in a lecture. Try to see the main points and do not get lost in a barrage of minor points • Sit as close to the front of the class, there are fewer distractions and it is easier to hear, see and attend to important material. • Get assignments and suggestions precisely - ask questions if you're not sure.
Form of notes: • Linear notes: This types of notes consists some heading and subheadings with rough drawings or linked letters. Points can be highlighted and flow of the note is according to it occurrence. E.g. wide left-hand margin is used so that you can add material to your notes at a later date.
|Lecture or book article details |
|Wide left hand margin. |A. MAJOR TOPIC |
|Approximately one third of|Key point |
|your page. |supporting point |
|This allows you to add |supporting point |
|material either |supporting point |
|during the lecture |Key point |
|when reviewing your notes |supporting point |
|when doing other research |supporting point |
| |B. MAJOR TOPIC |
• Spider diagram: It is a scribbling pattern of note taking. Usually during any unstructured discussion we need to take notes and also point the important parts. Like a cobweb as we point the structure it is known as spider diagram. E.g. of Spider diagram [pic]
Unit-3 Common constrains: • Level of concentration • Understanding • Lecture material • Confusing or cross statement
A summary is an overview of a text. The main idea is given, but details, examples and formalities are left out. Used with longer texts, the main aim of summarizing is to reduce or condense a text to its most important ideas. Summarizing is a useful skill for making notes from readings and in lectures, writing an abstract/synopsis and incorporating material in assignments.
Components to make a good summary: • Reading • Selecting the key points • Noting the key points • Rewriting the phrase • Check the final draft
The amount of detail you include in a summary will vary according to the length of the original text, how much information you need and how selective you are: • Start by reading a short text and highlighting the main points as you read. • Reread the text and make notes of the main points, leaving out examples, evidence etc. • Without the text, rewrite your notes in your own words; restate the main idea at the beginning plus all major points.
Step One (Prewriting): • Read the article quickly. • Try to get a sense of the article's general focus and content.
Step Two (Drafting): • Restate the article's thesis simply and in your own words. • Restate each paragraph's topic simply and in your own words.
Step Three (Revising): • Combine sentences in Step Two to form your summary; organize your summary sentences in the same order as the main ideas in the original text. • Edit very carefully for neatness and correctness.
When to Summaries: • To outline the main points of someone else's work in your own words, without the details or examples. • To include an author's ideas using fewer words than the original text. • To briefly give examples of several differing points of view on a topic. • To support claims in, or provide evidence for note.
• Text: The amphibians, which, is the animal class to which our frogs and toads belong, were the first animals to crawl from the sea and inhabit the earth.
Summary: The first animals to leave the sea and live on dry land were the amphibians.
• Text: There are a number of methods of joining metal articles together, depending on the type of metal and the strength of the joint which is required.
Summary: One piece of metals can be connected to another depending on the method used to dictate the metal type and how strong a joint is needed.
The main idea behind a proper structure of communication is to make sure that recipient gets the message with proper package and transmission. Before coming to the transformation of communication let us see what will be the main form of it. • Introduction: o Subject matter. E.g. subject line or heading o Approach. • Body • Conclusion
It is good to follow certain writing or developing tools while forming the structure. • The sequence of points • Headings • Numbering • Layout
Clarity in communication:
To have a successful communication it is vital to give proper emphasis on the ways it moves. Language as it works as the base of the main form we need to give better attention here. For example while we are using English to communicate we should be; • Precise and simple in it. • Using short sentences. • Effective vocabulary • Shun using any colloquial or redundant expression. • Avoid any jargon or discriminatory language or expression.
The seven C’s of Communication: 1. Clear: In simple words 2. Concise: expressing much in few words; "a concise explanation" 3. Correct: Using proper sense in sentences 4. Courteous: Characterized by courtesy and gracious good manners. 5. Complete: Give a finishing touch for fullness. 6. Consistent: Keep data and source is reliable. 7. Convincing: causing one to believe the truth of something.
The most permanent form of communication is the written form. Be it for company literature or letter it is always most reliable text that don’t change its value as it move from recipients to recipients.
The main purpose of writing text is to make proper correspondence between sender and receiver. Along with that a keeping record, interchange of similar or same data or information give the significance to written format.
There are many forms of writing but in business organization most effective and most used form are, letter, memo, note, briefing and report.
Approaches to Business Correspondence:
The style, size, format etc. plays a greater role while we start with any business correspondence. To write a convincing document we need to take care of artifacts that get along with the document. Let us follow certain simple rules while communicating in written form as follows;
Impressive Letter writing: • Building Impression: o Paper quality ▪ Weight, color, texture, letterhead style, message to type or write by hand, color of the ink etc. o Envelope ▪ Match it with letter, windowed or not, Stamped or not, Printed address or hand written etc. o Logos and corporate image o Typeface o Miscellaneous: Correct address, Correct name, Type of Channel (Normal post, speed post), Post mark etc.
Writing business letters:
Following information details are unavoidable while forming a business letter. • Senders details: o Name o Complete Address o Other communicational information (Tel, Fax, E-mail, URL etc.) • Receiver’s details: o Name o Position or designation o Complete Address • References • Mailing instruction: Confidential, Private, Urgent etc. • Date line • Subject line • Salutation or Greetings • Closing • Signature • Enclosure • Copies
Layout of business letter:
The format of business letters has slowly changed over time with the culture of business getting less and less formal. Here are the components of a traditional full block business letters -- shown in picture form and with explanations.
Block 1 - Return Address
If your stationary includes a letterhead, skip this block. Type your name and address along with other relevant contact information such as e-mail or fax number.
Block 2 - Date
If your stationary includes a letterhead, type the date from 2 to 6 lines under the letterhead. Otherwise type it under the return address.
Block 3 - Reference
Use this block to identify what the letter is in regards to. Examples are: "Re: Invoice 12345" or "Re: Your letter dated January 15, 2006.".
Block 4 - Delivery Notations
Always in caps. Examples include SPECIAL DELIVERY, CERTIFIED MAIL, AIRMAIL, VIA FACSIMILE.
Block 5 - Recipient Notations
Notation on private correspondence if needed such as PERSONAL or CONFIDENTIAL. This goes just above the recipient.
Block 6 - Recipient
Type the name and address of the person and / or company. If you are using an attention line (block 7) then skip the person's name. Address the envelope similarly.
Block 7 - Attention
Type the name of the person
Block 8 - Salutation
Type the recipient's name. Use Mr. or Ms. [Last Name] to show respect, but don't try to guess spelling or gender if you are not sure. Some common salutations are: "Dear [Full Name]:", "To Whom it May Concern:".
Block 9 - Subject
Type a short description on what the letter is about. If you used a reference line, then you likely do not need a subject line.
Block 10 - Letter
Type two spaces between sentences.
Continuing on to a Second Page
If the letter exceeds one page, repeat the recipients name, the date, the reference or subject line and show the current page number.
Block 16 - Page Number
Type the page number.
Block 17 - Continuing Letter Text
Continue your letter three lines below the heading. If you have less than three lines on the second page, consider rewriting your letter or adjusting margins to fit on a single page.
Completing the Letter
Block 11 - Complimentary Close
It depends on the tone and degree of formality as to what you write here. Can vary from the very formal "Respectfully yours" to the typical "Sincerely" to the friendly "Cordially yours".
Block 12 - Signature
Leave four blank lines after the Complimentary Close (block 11) to sign your name. Type your name and (optional) title under that signature.
Block 13 - Identification
If someone else has typed the letter for you, it is common for them to indicate so with initials. Typically it is your initials in upper case followed by the other initials in lower case. For example "BCT/gt". If you typed your own letter, skip this block.
Block 14 - Enclosures
If you are including other things with the letter such as brochures, this line tells the reader how many to expect. Common styles include "Enclosures: 3".
Block 15 - Copies
If you are distributing copies of the letter to others, indicate so using a copies block. the code "cc:" used to indicate carbon copies but now is commonly called courtesy copies.
Continuing on to a Second Page
Notes and Tips
Don't type the brackets. The brackets [ ] in the examples are for narrative purposes only.
Try to keep your letters to one page.
Use letterhead only for the first page. Just use a blank sheet of paper for continuation pages.
You have some freedom in how many blank lines to use between blocks and in the margin sizes in order to fit a letter onto a single page.
Not all letters need every block identified in this article. If you leave one out, do not leave blank lines where the blocks would have been. Types of letter: • Confirmation letter: A letter to confirm an event. • Letter of acknowledgement: To acknowledge a receipt. • Letter of enquiry: To enquire about some product, service or event. • Collection letter: For collection of arrear. • Letter of apology: To express guilt • Circular letter: To pass information to a group at a time. • Complaints letter: To express unhappiness. • Standard letter: Miscellaneous formal or informal letters.
A common form of inter- or intradepartmental communication in business and academia is the memorandum (pl. memorandums or memoranda), usually called a memo. Memos are written by everyone from junior executives and engineers to CEOs. Hence, it is essential to master this basic communication form.
Although memos are ordinarily formal, there has recently been a trend toward a more personal style. Careful writers are able to achieve this style without sacrificing clarity, grace, or precision. Unlike letters, which include inside addresses, salutations, and complimentary closings, memos have just two sections: the heading and the body. To simplify the communication process, many firms and organizations use memo pads with predesigned formats. If you need to construct a memo without such a memo pad, use the vertical format shown below:
Date: June 6, 1991
To: David Dunlop
From: Shawn Jackson
Subject: Language Requirement
Some people also use what is known as the horizontal format, where the "To" and "From" fields are flush with the left margin, while the "Date" and "Subject" fields are aligned with the right margin.
Date: Write the full name of the month or use its standard abbreviation (i.e., don't use numerals).
To: If company policy and your relationship with the addressee allow, you may omit courtesy (Mrs., Ms., Mr.) or professional (Dr., Dean, etc.) titles. Generally, however, address people of higher rank by title. For most format situations, use the addressee's full name; for informal situations, first names or even nicknames may be appropriate. If the addressee's name alone is not sufficient to ensure that the memo will reach its destination, put an identifying tag, such as a job or department title, directly after the addressee's name (for example, To: John Hutchins, Payroll Office). If the memo is directed to several people, list their names alphabetically or in descending order of their position in the institutional hierarchy. If numerous names are required, you may use "To: See Below" and then place the addressees' names at the end of the message. If the group is too large to list all of its members individually, follow "To:" with an identifying classification, such as "Faculty and Staff" or "Process Engineers."
From: Place your own name on this line, and do not use a courtesy title. If you believe that the reader may not know you, then use a job title or department name to identify yourself. If you choose to sign the memo to personalize it or to indicate authorization, write your initials above, below, or to the right of your typewritten name. Practices vary considerably in this respect, so it's best to follow local preferences. A memo is always official even if it isn't signed.
Subject: "Re:" (Latin for thing, affair, or concern) is occasionally used in place of "Subject:", but many of today's businesspeople regard "Re" as obsolete. The statement of subject should be concise yet accurate, since it often determines where or how the memo will be filed.
Two words characterize a well-written memo: informative and concise. Make your memo informative by observing the same principles that govern any writing process, the most important of which are preparation and organization.
Preparation: Determine the exact objective; you should be able to state this objective in a single sentence. Know your reader(s), and determine whether or not you need to cover fundamental issues or define technical terms.
Organization: Keep things under control. Present your material coherently, and decide on the pattern of organization that best suits your purpose. The two most common patterns of organization for business and technical memos are deduction (decreasing order of importance) and induction (increasing order of importance).
Deduction: Deduction, presenting ideas in decreasing order of importance, generally assumes that the reader is well acquainted with the topic under discussion. In writing a deductive memo, present your most salient point first (but don't simply repeat the "Subject" statement). This strategy spares readers needless loss of time wading through data they may already know. Place supporting facts in subsequent sentences for readers who may be unfamiliar with the subject. Place the background data last. Those who want or need to read this information to understand the message will take the time to do so; others may scan it or bypass it entirely. Most business memos use this pattern of organization.
Induction: Induction, presenting ideas in increasing order of importance, draws upon a different set of assumptions than does deduction. The reasons to use induction vary, but they may include the following: you have to announce bad news or your reader(s) may not understand the main idea without significant prior preparation. In such cases, organize your thoughts by leading up to the most forceful idea, and present that idea at the end of the memo. Keep in mind that such memos often take longer to write.
If writing a memo turns out to be more difficult than you anticipated, you may find that, a quick outline will help you organize your thoughts. In composing such an outline, focus your attention on the main ideas rather than on introductions or transitions. Strive to be plain, direct, and concise while using a comfortable, natural style. Because memos are generally brief, the outline need only provide structure and proportion; nevertheless, it should not leave gaps in logic or omit important details. The outline can take the form of brief phrases listed sequentially, thereby giving order to the body and establishing relationships between the ideas. If necessary, you can develop your outline into a rough draft by expanding your notes into paragraphs. Write quickly, and pretend you are speaking to someone across the table.
1. Write a meaningful subject line.
Recipients scan the subject line in order to decide whether to open, forward, file, or trash a message. Remember -- your message is not the only one in your recipient's mailbox.
|[pic] |Subject: "Important! Read Immediately!!" |
| |What is important to you may not be important to your reader. Rather than brashly announcing that the secret contents |
| |of your message are important, write an informative headline that actually communicates at least the core of what you |
| |feel is so important: "Emergency: All Cars in the Lower Lot Will Be Towed in 1 Hour." |
|[pic] |Subject: "Meeting" |
| |The purpose of this e-mail might be a routine request for a meeting, an announcement of a last-minute rescheduling, or |
| |a summary of something that has already happened. There's no way to know without opening the message, so this subject |
| |line is hardly useful. |
|[pic] |Subject: "Follow-up about Meeting" |
| |Fractionally better -- provided that the recipient recognizes your name and remembers why a follow-up was necessary. |
|[pic] |Subject: "Do we need a larger room for meeting next Fri?" |
| |Upon reading this revised, informative subject line, the recipient immediately starts thinking about the size of the |
| |room, not about whether it will be worth it to open the e-mail. |
If your e-mail accounts get dozens of virus-bearing junk mails each day, often bearing a vague title such as "That file you requested," or no title at all. You'll get a faster response if your recipient can tell from the subject line that it's a real message from a real person.
2. Keep the message focused and readable.
Often recipients only read partway through a long message, hit "reply" as soon as they have something to contribute, and forget to keep reading. This is part of human nature.
If your e-mail contains multiple messages that are only loosely related, in order to avoid the risk that your reader will reply only to the first item that grabs his or her fancy, you could number your points to ensure they are all read (adding an introductory line that states how many parts there are to the message). If the points are substantial enough, split them up into separate messages so your recipient can delete, respond, file, or forward each item individually.
Keep your message readable. • Use standard capitalization and spelling, especially when your message asks your recipient to do work for you • Skip lines between paragraphs. • Avoid fancy typefaces. Don't depend upon bold font or large size to add nuances -- many people's e-mail readers only display plain text. In a pinch, use asterisks to show *emphasis*. • Don't type in all-caps. Online, all-caps mean shouting. Regardless of your intention, people will react as if you meant to be aggressive.
3. Avoid attachments.
Put your information the body of your e-mail whenever possible. Attachments • Are increasingly dangerous carriers of viruses • Take time to download • Take up needless space on your recipient's computer, and • Don’t always translate correctly (especially for people who might read their e-mail on portable devices).
Instead of sending a whole word processor file, just copy and paste the relevant text into the e-mail (unless of course your recipient actually needs to view file in order to edit or archive it).
4. Identify yourself clearly.
When contacting someone cold, always include your name, occupation, and any other important identification information in the first few sentences.
If you are following up on a face-to-face contact, you might appear too timid if you assume your recipient doesn't remember you; but you can drop casual hints to jog their memory: "I enjoyed talking with you about PDAs in the elevator the other day."
If you are asking someone else to do work for you, take the time to make your message look professional.
6. Don't assume privacy.
E-mail is not secure.
7. Distinguish between formal and informal situations.
Don't use informal language when your reader expects a more formal approach. Always know the situation, and write accordingly.
8. Respond Promptly.
If you want to appear professional and courteous, make yourself available to your online correspondents. Even if your reply is, "Sorry, I'm too busy to help you now," at least your correspondent won't be waiting in vain for your reply.
9. Show Respect and Restraint
It is good form to ask the sender before forwarding a personal message. If someone e-mails you a request, it is perfectly acceptable to forward the request to a person who can help.
Use BCC instead of CC when sending sensitive information to large groups. (For example, a professor sends a bulk message to students who are in danger of failing, or an employer telling unsuccessful applicants that a position is no longer open.) The name of everyone in the CC list goes out with the message, but the names of people on the BCC list ("blind carbon copy") are hidden. Put your own name in the "To" box if your mail editor doesn't like the blank space.
10. Sometimes E-Mail is too fast!
At time before getting into one answer another arises.
Though technology behind faxing is helpful and well acclaimed in modern business organizations it is also having certain consideration to check before delivery. Usually fax print is hazy and nonpermanent. Also not all machines has capacity of color print. Things to focus on; • Logo and margin • Fax number in faxing document • Keeping copy of faxed document • If not urgent send by mail (Snail or e) • Is it cost effective while sending a large amount of document • Fax is very useful while booking, making external memo, to give initial draft, as an immediate response etc.
• Planned correspondence • Salutation and closing • Try to judge recipient capability to understand written format. • Reread to correct any error • Keep it simple
* Finally keep your communication simple and straight.
To simplify the data collection every business organization follows some or the other format of form. Forms are of various types like; • Message forms • Report forms • Application forms • Questionnaire • Check list • Complaint / Suggestion
It is always advantageous for the organization to use forms as long as they wish to;
Keep the information from different source in same format
Have needs to cover specific data
Avoid unnecessary data
Have routine communication
Similarly individual employees also can avoid writing long, notice, letter or memo if they follow a uniform format.
Again forms, usually doesn’t allow a person to give enough information if they wish to. Some times information a form carry can be confidential and if proper care is not taken it may mishandled.
Guideline of a communicative form: • Provide proper direction to fill a form • Use simple language • Use simple query • Leave sufficient space for answer • Striking layout • Avoid confidential elements / If require assure in written • Use processing information
Form element: • Answer space • Check / Tick boxes • Instruction to fill o Delete where not applicable o Ring or underline or emphasize correct answer o Selection of alternative • Use caution statement clearly with emphasized font
Types of Form: • Regular business form • Report form • Application form • Questionnaire Allure Pvt. Ltd. H.Hiyeleege, R.R.Magu, Male’ COUNSELING FORM Visitor details: Name…………………………………………………………………….. Organization…………………………………………………………….. Tel………………………………………………………………………… Message: ……………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………. For the office use only: Choice of course: Joining Date: Review Date: Date and Time: Signature:
Your organization is willing to provide a training program to upgrade the skill of all engineers working in your organization.
Prepare a form by asking following information. • Option of training program • Requirement of stay and Food facility (If require then which type) • Disability status to undergo the training • Transport requirement • Personal information: o Name o Designation o Department o Job code or ID Number o Permanent and present Address o Years of service offered o Years of service remaining
* Use your creativity to make a well designed form.
In the hierarchy of the organization it is necessary to have a reporting system which can satisfy all relevant communication and information need. In general reports are of to superior or to testify an event.
Classification of Reports: 1. Regular and Routine • Sales, Safety, Financial, and Progress report etc. 2. Occasional • Disciplinary, Accidental, Legal etc. 3. Special reports • Investigation, Policy, Strategy, Research etc.
Business report format:
Usually a business report contains an executive summary that, includes, Title, Author and report objectives, Methodology, findings and main recommendation.
If the report is short that includes only an introduction, findings and conclusion.
Types of reporting: • Informal • Memorandum • Formal
In higher education and work, formal reports communicate information to others without the need for meetings. If you are required to explain your work to others in this way, effective reports are vital. Effective reports will give you a professional image and get others to take your work seriously.
Report writing in Higher Education
You may be required to produce written reports as part of your course, so you will have opportunities to enhance your report writing skills. Reports can form a regular part of assessed work and can be needed if you're involved in extra-curricular activities with societies or external groups.
Report writing at work
Reports are a way of informing and persuading people as well as initiating change. You might prepare or contribute to annual, project or progress reports. A well-structured report that has clear objectives will get more attention and is more likely to produce the intended results.
Report Vs. Essay:
Reports have their own structure and this is distinct from the form of an essay.
Essays are mainly used to allow you to demonstrate your ideas and arguments to tutors. Written reports provide specific research-based information which results in a course of action being decided and acted on. Reports are designed to give information concisely and accurately. A formal report has an impersonal and objective "tone of voice". The main argument is clear and uses a minimum of words. Accurately presented facts are in the main body of the report - your evaluation of these is in the "conclusions" and "recommendations" sections.
Reports tend to follow a standard structure but much depends on the circumstances in which they are being written. It helps to ask your lecturers, employers or mentors what they expect - there may be an accepted way of writing a report appropriate to your course, employment or professional body.
Before you start to write, you need to be clear about what you want to achieve and what you want to say. This will involve some planning. If you plan a report well, it will save time - and will save much drafting and redrafting.
Steps to follow: • Define your aim • Collect your ideas • Select the material and decide how to show the significance of your facts • Structure your ideas • You will then find it much easier to write.
Defining Your Aim • Start by asking yourself some questions: • Why am I writing this? • What do I want to achieve? • Who will read this? • What does my reader want to know? • How will this be used? • When is this needed?
Once you have answered these questions, you should be clear about the kind of document needed.
Collecting Your Ideas:
Start by jotting down ideas in note form. Do not write sentences at this stage. Remember your aim and concentrate on the questions in the readers' minds. This will help you to include only those ideas which are relevant, rather than writing everything you know about the subject.
Not all of your ideas will come at once, so plan to meet your deadline. Be prepared to spend some time on noting initial ideas and then set the document aside. When you come back to it later, you will find that your ideas have gelled and that you can see the way ahead more clearly.
Selecting Your Ideas:
Review the content of the document. Are all the ideas relevant? Is there anything which you need to cut out? Think about using appendices or attachments to cover detail which the reader may need at a later stage, but does not need in order to understand the main message.
Decide how to show the significance of your facts. Would some graphs or diagrams help the readers understand your message? What visual material will you use? How will you produce it?
Structuring the Document
You will need to structure the content in a logical and clear way if you are going to help the readers take in your message.
Make sure you have a sequence of headings and sub-headings which will act as signposts to help the readers find the information they need.
Also, if you structure a piece of writing well, you will find it easier to choose the words to express your ideas.
A report should be divided into sections and sub-sections, each of which should have a clear heading. If you structure a report well, it will not only help your readers find the information they need but it will also help you when you start writing.
Many readers may not want to read the whole report; they will want to read the parts that are relevant to them. A well structured report will help them to find information quickly. • A good structure will help you to decide where to put each fact or idea. • It will help you to think clearly. • Your readers will want to concentrate on only one aspect at a time.
You will be able to start writing at any point - you will not necessarily have to start at the beginning. If different people are contributing to the report, they will know what to cover.
Good headings will tell your readers about the subject in each section.
The main headings and sub-headings will give your readers an overview of your plan.
A good structure will make it easier for your readers to refer back to specific sections of your report.
Preparing structure: • Make sure the structure is complete. It must cover all the facts and ideas. Dustbins like General or Other Notes usually show that the design is the wrong one. • Your headings must be helpful and clear - they must tell the readers about the information in each section. One-word headings are often vague and misleading. Don't be afraid of using headings that are eight or nine words long - they will help you to be more certain of what to put in each section, and will help your readers to find the details they need. • Your sections should be watertight. Each point should fit logically into only one section. This is not always possible - you may need to remind your readers of something you said earlier - but don't give up easily. Over-repetition may indicate a bad design. • Do not have too much material in each section - or too many headings in a string. Your readers will only be able to cope with a maximum of about six points, if they are going to remember the points you are making.
Presenting a Report Professionally
A report should be written in the third person - this means not using "I" or "we". Often more formal, lengthy reports are written in sections which have sub-headings and are numbered.
Reports are broken into the following elements, but it should be noted that not all these elements are needed in all reports. For example, an index is only needed for long reports where readers need to locate items; a glossary of terms may help if the readers are unfamiliar with terms used, but not otherwise.
As previously mentioned, the way in which you present your report will vary according to what you are writing and for whom. This section gives general guidance but you should follow advice given by tutors and others.
This will include the title of the report, who has written it and the date it was written/submitted.
Thanks to the people or organizations that have helped. Contents Page:
As in a book, this lists the headings in the report, together with the page numbers showing where the particular section, illustration etc. can be located.
This is a most important part of many reports and may well be the only section that some readers read in detail. It should be carefully written and should contain a complete overview of the message in the report, with a clear summary of your recommendations.
Terms of Reference:
This section sets the scene for your report. It should define the scope and limitations of the investigation and the purpose of the report. It should say who the report is for, any constraints (for example your deadline, permitted length) - in other words, your aims and objectives - the overall purpose of your report and more specifically what you want to achieve.
Methodology / Procedure:
This section outlines how you investigated the area. How you gathered information, where from and how much (e.g. if you used a survey, how the survey was carried out, how did you decide on the target group, how many were surveyed, how were they surveyed - by interviews or questionnaire?)
This will help to tune your readers in to the background of your report. It is not another name for a summary and should not be confused with this. They can be two separate sections or combined: background detail could include details of the topic you are writing about. You could take the opportunity to expand on your Terms of Reference within the introduction, give more detail as to the background of the report - but remember to keep it relevant, factual and brief.
Findings and Analysis:
This is the main body of the report, where you develop your ideas. Make sure that it is well structured, with clear headings, and that your readers can find information easily. Use paragraphs within each section to cover one aspect of the subject at a time. Include any graphs or other visual material in this section if this will help your readers. The nature of this section will depend on the brief and scope of the report. The sections should deal with the main topics being discussed - there should be a logical sequence, moving from the descriptive to the analytical. It should contain sufficient information to justify the conclusions and recommendations which follow. Selection of appropriate information is crucial here: if information is important to help understanding, then it should be included; irrelevant information should be omitted.
These are drawn from the analysis in the previous section and should be clear and concise. They should also link back to the Terms of Reference. At this stage in the report, no new information can be included. The conclusions should cover what you have deduced about the situation - bullet points will be satisfactory.
Make sure that you highlight any actions that need to follow on from your work. Your readers will want to know what they should do as a result of reading your report and will not want to dig for the information. Make them specific - recommendations such as "It is recommended that some changes should be made" are not helpful, merely irritating. As with the Conclusion, recommendations should be clearly derived from the main body of the report and again, no new information should be included.
References / Bibliography:
References are items referred to in the report. The Bibliography contains additional material not specifically referred to, but which readers may want to follow up.
Use these to provide any more detailed information which your readers may need for reference - but do not include key data which your readers really need in the main body of the report. Appendices must be relevant and should be numbered so they can be referred to in the main body.
Glossary of Terms and abbreviation:
Provide a glossary if you think it will help your readers but do not use one as an excuse to include jargon in the report that your readers may not understand.
Good presentation can make a report clearer. Consider the following points when writing your report:
Overall impact - typed or word processed reports are generally preferred, and should be presented in a folder or plastic wallet - whatever you think is suitable.
Headings - should be clearly ranked. Look at the example below and you can see there are three styles of headings - one for main sections, one for sub-sections, and one for further sub-sections.
Numbering - numbering your sections makes the report easier to follow. A common system is to number a main section, then for sub-sections to place a dot after the main section number and begin to number again. You can continue to a further level. This makes it easier to refer the reader to a specific part of the report, e.g. paragraph 3.2.2, rather than to say "about half way down page 5".
Executive Summary does not form part of the numbering system. This is normal practice in report writing - the summary should "stand alone" from the rest of the report.
It can be useful to put your draft report aside for a few days before rereading it. This will allow you to become more detached from it and be able to spot errors more easily.
Short Report element:
For the attention of
Term of reference
Checklist to edit a report:
A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. Typically, it is mailed, faxed, or e-mailed to assignment editors at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, television stations, and/or television networks.
News releases Vs. News Article:
A news release is different from a news article. A news article is a compilation of facts developed by journalists published in the news media, whereas a news release is designed to be sent to journalists in order to encourage them to develop articles on the subject. A news release is generally biased towards the objectives of the author.
The use of news releases is common in the field of public relations, the aim of which is to attract favorable media attention to the PR firm's client, and publicity, the aim of which is to attract favorable media attention for products marketed by the client.
While there are several types of press releases (such as general news releases, event releases, product press releases, and more recently social media press releases), press releases very often have several traits of their structure in common. This helps journalists separate press releases from other PR communication methods, such as pitch letters or media advisories. Some of these common structural elements include: • Headline - used to grab the attention of journalists and briefly summarize the news. • Dateline - contains the release date and usually the originating city of the press release. • Introduction - first paragraph in a press release, that generally gives basic answers to the questions of who, what, when, where and why. • Body - further explanation, statistics, background, or other details relevant to the news. • Boilerplate - generally a short "about" section, providing independent background on the issuing company, organization, or individual. • Media Contact Information - name, phone number, email address, mailing address, or other contact information for the PR or other media relations contact person.
No underline or emphasizing
Do not start a sentence with a number
Keep track on spelling and grammar
• Letter head • Date • Headline • Background details • Customer benefits • Contact persons detail • Attachments / Enclosures
Embargoed news release:
Sometimes a news release is embargoed -- that is, news organizations are requested not to report the story until a specified time. For example, news organizations usually receive a copy of presidential speeches several hours in advance. In such cases, the news organizations generally do not break the embargo. If they do, the agency that sent the release may blacklist them. A blacklisted news organization will not receive any more embargoed releases, or possibly any releases at all.
Communication skills include the mix of verbal, interpersonal and physical strategies needed to interact confidently and effectively with a range of audiences. • Classification and Style: o Internal:
Usually within organization presentations are more of meeting, briefing related to group or departments. To solve any problem raised or and strategy to impose these group presentations are being organized. o Aspects of Internal event: ▪ Audience known ▪ Venue within (In-house hall) ▪ Less or no promotional activity ▪ Refreshment (Informal) ▪ Design and materials (Limited) ▪ Presenter (Senior or group member) ▪ Follow up is immediate or an immediate circular letter/e-mail
Generally external events organized in a third party location outside the campus. To solve any problem raised or and strategy to impose among and over external members of the organization (suppliers, shareholders, press / media etc). o Aspects of Internal event: ▪ Audience Unknown ▪ Active promotional activity ▪ Need formal event management skill ▪ Distribution of materials ▪ Presenter (invited usually many) ▪ Follow up in after event briefing or meeting organized within campus.
There are three major skill areas that relate to all business students. These areas include: • One-to-one communication: where the goal is to express clearly one's own thoughts and to understand fully the views of another. Specific dimensions that might be used to assess performance may include appropriate body language, eye contact, appropriate language to the situation, diction, etc.
• Small group (3-6 persons) interaction: in which the purpose is to complete a project. Specific areas to be assessed may include peer evaluations, whether there was a clear contribution to the group effort, appearance of team unity and respect for team members during presentation, etc.
• Formal address: in which the speaker presents information and responds to questions from the audience. Specific dimensions for evaluation may include organization and flow of ideas, use of visual aids, response to questions, appearance, clarity of speech, etc.
• Planning • Clear Idea • Clear purpose • Awareness of the audience • Non verbal elements
Oral Proficiency: 1. Pronunciation:
Mumbling: Tongue tied a situation where thoughts swollen but movement come slow. Try following tongue twister to avoid any such situation. • Sally sales seashells by the sea shore • Freshly-fried flying fish • Greek grapes go great draped on crates of crushed dates. Hesitancy: Cautions about dress or artifacts or comment of the audience. Robot reading:
First, say the sentence out loud as you would if you were ecstatically happy.
Then say the same sentence out loud as you would if you were extremely sad. • I just got a call saying that I won a vacation in Australia. • I’m going to have to change that light bulb. • Our town now has a new recycling program. • My next door neighbor is moving out next week. • I’ll be able to retire in only two more years
Dropping letters: Did you say “go-ing” or did you say “go-in”? If you said “go-in” (or “walk-in”, “jog-gin”, etc.), you’re a G-dropper Using Fillers: Fillers range from repetitious sounds, such as “uh”, “um” and the dreaded Canadian “eh”, through favorite catch words and phrases, such as “you know”, “anyway”, “Whatever”, “all right” and “like”. 2. Argument structure 3. Stress on word 4. Tone 5. Volume 6. Pace
Proper listening guides us to speak well. A good listener is a good speaker too. Sometimes listening coupled with imagination and ideas, it is better to avoid own thinking while listening as it may create bias attitude towards the subject.
How to listen?
The domain of language proficiency that encompasses how students process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations
Real listening is an active process that has three basic steps.
Hearing: Hearing just means listening enough to catch what the speaker is saying. For example, say you were listening to a report on zebras, and the speaker mentioned that no two are alike. If you can repeat the fact, then you have heard what has been said.
Understanding: The next part of listening happens when you take what you have heard and understand it in your own way. Let's go back to that report on zebras. When you hear that no two are alike, think about what that might mean. You might think, "Maybe this means that the pattern of stripes is different for each zebra."
Judging: After you are sure you understand what the speaker has said, think about whether it makes sense. Do you believe what you have heard? You might think, "How could the stripes to be different for every zebra? But then again, the fingerprints are different for every person. I think this seems believable."
Tips for being a good listener • Give your full attention on the person who is speaking. Don't look out the window or at what else is going on in the room. • Make sure your mind is focused, too. It can be easy to let your mind wander if you think you know what the person is going to say next, but you might be wrong! If you feel your mind wandering, change the position of your body and try to concentrate on the speaker's words. • Let the speaker finish before you begin to talk. Speakers appreciate having the chance to say everything they would like to say without being interrupted. When you interrupt, it looks like you aren't listening, even if you really are. • Let yourself finish listening before you begin to speak! You can't really listen if you are busy thinking about what you want say next. • Listen for main ideas. The main ideas are the most important points the speaker wants to get across. They may be mentioned at the start or end of a talk, and repeated a number of times. Pay special attention to statements that begin with phrases such as "My point is..." or "The thing to remember is..." • Ask questions. If you are not sure you understand what the speaker has said, just ask. It is a good idea to repeat in your own words what the speaker said so that you can be sure your understanding is correct. For example, you might say, "When you said that no two zebras are alike, did you mean that the stripes are different on each one?" • Give feedback. Sit up straight and look directly at the speaker. Now and then, nod to show that you understand. At appropriate points you may also smile, frown, laugh, or be silent. These are all ways to let the speaker know that you are really listening. Remember, you listen with your face as well as your ears!
In a face to face communication or in a written communication care must be taken towards;
Pronunciation, Clarity (information sequence), Choice of language (Ok, you know repeating), Stress (Repeating same content), Tone, volume, Pace, Articulation (reading like a machine) etc.
Pronunciation and accent:
Pronunciation refers to the way a word or a language is usually spoken; the manner in which someone utters a word.
Accent usually refers to differences of pronunciation -- deviations from the standard -- by which the speaker might be socially and/or culturally categorized (in terms of class, region, ethnicity etc). These deviations are implicitly seen as inferior.
A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: • The area in which they grew up • The area in which they now live • Their social class • Their education.
Speech refers to the transmission of language orally. Clarity of speech plays a greater role while conveying any message. A factor that directly affects a good speech is physical ability and situational activities. A simple combination of language and expression always help in proper delivery of speech. Following are some step to have clarity in speech
Practice jaw exercises to enhance clarity of speech. Use a mirror to aid you in this step. Here are three exercises to help. These also help relax the jaw, making speech a lot clearer: • Make wide chewing motions while humming gently. Stretch every muscle in your jaw and face. • Open your mouth wide, as in the previous exercise, and shut it again. Repeat 5 times. • Another good way to improve clarity of speech is practicing tongue twisters. • Another activity is to try having a conversation with you in front of the mirror. • Don't rush when speaking. Talk deliberately, but not so slow that you are a robot.
Language in use:
A language is a system, used for communication, comprising a set of arbitrary symbols and a set of rules (or grammar) by which the manipulation of these symbols is governed. These symbols can be combined productively to convey new information, distinguishing languages from other forms of communication.
For better communication we need to use simple phrases and common words.
Stress on words:
Word stress is not used in all languages. Some languages, Japanese or French for example, pronounce each syllable with equal emphasis. In English language communication we use word stress.
Word stress is not an optional extra that you can add to the English language if you want. It is part of the language! For example, you do not hear a word clearly; you can still understand the word because of the position of the stress.
Think again about the two words photograph and photographer. Now imagine that you are speaking to somebody by telephone over a very bad line. You cannot hear clearly. In fact, you hear only the first two syllables of one of these words, photo... Which word is it, photograph or photographer? Of course, with word stress you will know immediately which word it is because in reality you will hear either PHOto... or phoTO... So without hearing the whole word, you probably know what the word is ( PHOto...graph or phoTO...grapher). It's magic! (Of course, you also have the 'context' of your conversation to help you.)
Tone and audibility:
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish words. All languages use intonation to express emphasis, emotion, or other such nuances, but not every language uses tone to distinguish meaning. Audibility of the whole is the next part to be taken care of.
The movement of mouth, lips, tongue, voice, etc (called the 'articulators') to produce speech sounds. Poor or incorrect articulation may be due to problems with the position, timing, direction, pressure, speed, or integration of the movement of lips, tongue, or other articulators. This also refers to the clarity of sounds in speech.
For effectively determining what the problem is, your best tools are active listening and questioning. The following sections will provide you with an explanation of several techniques to use to question and to demonstrate active listening. Let's first look at questioning techniques with exercises to practice them. • To begin or continue discussion • To pinpoint and/or clarify issues to gather pertinent information • To help the client self explore
In the above scenario, you would want to question to pinpoint or clarify the issues since you can't make out much of what Mrs. Green is saying.
Type of questioning: 1. Positive questions: • All questions should be asked in a positive way. • Avoid accusing, sarcastic or threatening language or tone in your questions.
For example: "What exactly are you getting at? Could you get to the point." Versus "I don't understand what you are trying to tell me. Could you please try to explain it in a different way?" (This is an example of changing a "you" statement into an "I" statement.) • Remain supportive and non-threatening.
**A positive question is one that a client is not afraid to answer 2. Open Questions • Encourage an individual to talk and provide maximum information to identify causes and work toward solutions. • Usually begin with "how", "why" or "could".
Example: "Could you describe the kind of noise you are hearing?" 3. Closed Questions • Can be answered in a few words or sentences. • Are good for providing specifics. • Place the prime responsibility for talking on you. • Usually begin with "where", "are", "do".
Example: "Are you alone?"
Sometimes the individuals we are speaking with offer little detail in their responses. Probes: • Ask for more details. • Usually following up on a response.
Example: "Tell me more about how you are feeling."
5. FIVE Ws AND THE HOW
Typically, whether a reporter or a police officer, the key questions to ask are: • Who? Who are the clients? Who else is involved? In defining who the clients are, you might ask questions beginning with question words other than "who" but which further your knowledge of who is involved. For example, what are the key personal background factors? • What? What is the problem? What are the client's perceptions of the problem? What are the specific details of the situation? • Where? Where is the caller? Where did/does the problem occur? In what environment or situation? • When? When did/does the problem occur? What immediately preceded and followed? • Why? Why did the problem occur? • How? How is the client? How does the client react or feel about what happened? How did the incident happen? Questions may start with other question words, but are looking for answers to the question "how". For example, what was the sequence of the events? What are the relevant details of the event? How can the situation be addressed to meet the needs of the client?
CAUTIONS WHEN QUESTIONING
Asking a question cleverly will increase the likelihood of your getting a good understanding of the issues quickly. However, there are certain things you should avoid: • Bombardment / Grilling- Too many questions will put your client on the defensive or they may allow you to control the conversation which may limit what you ultimately find out. "Why" questions, if improperly asked, often cause individuals to become defensive. • Multiple Questions - If your question contains several questions, you may confuse the client. • Questions as Statements - Avoid leading your client to accept your point of view by turning a statement into a question. Example: Don't you think you should tell the children to go away? • Questions and Cultural Differences - Rapid fire questioning is not received favorably and can create distrust in individuals from non-western cultures.
Types of communication over telephone:
This is Ken.
Asking who is on the telephone:
Excuse me, who is this?
Can I ask who is calling, please?
Asking for Someone:
Can I have extension 321? (extensions are internal numbers at a company)
Could I speak to...? (Can I - more informal / May I - more formal)
Is Jack in? (informal idiom meaning: Is Jack in the office?
I'll put you through (put through - phrasal verb meaning 'connect')
Can you hold the line? Can you hold on a moment?
How to reply when someone is not available:
I'm afraid ... is not available at the moment
The line is busy... (when the extension requested is being used)
Mr Jackson isn't in... Mr Jackson is out at the moment...
Taking a Message:
Could (Can, May) I take a message?
Could (Can, May) I tell him who is calling?
Would you like to leave a message?
Leaving a Message
Sometimes, there may not be anyone to answer the telephone and you will need to leave a message. Follow this outline to make sure that the person who should receive your message has all the information he/she needs.
Introduction - - - - Hello, this is Ken. OR Hello, My name is Ken Beare (more formal).
State the time of day and your reason for calling - - - - - It's ten in the morning. I'm phoning (calling, ringing) to find out if ... / to see if ... / to let you know that ... / to tell you that ...
Make a request - - - - Could you call (ring, telephone) me back? / Would you mind ... ? /
Leave your telephone number - - - - My number is .... / You can reach me at .... / Call me at ...
Finish - - - - Thanks a lot, bye. / I'll talk to you later, bye.
Tele talks Exercise: 1. Requesting Travel Information
Choose a city in your country. You are going to travel to this city for a business meeting over the next weekend. Telephone a travel agency and reserve the following: • Round-trip flight • Hotel room for two nights • Restaurant recommendation • Prices and departure times
You work in a travel agency. Listen to student A and offer him/her the following solutions: • Round-trip flight: Air JW $450 Coach, $790 First Class • Hotel room for two nights: Hotel City $120 a night in the downtown area, Hotel Relax $110 a night near the airport • Restaurant Recommendation: Chez Marceau - downtown - average price $70 a person 2. Product Information
You need to purchase six new computers for your office. Call JA's Computer World and ask for the following information: • Current special offers on computers • Computer configuration (RAM, Hard Drive, CPU) • Guaranty • Possibility of discount for an order of six computers
You work in at JA's Computer World answer student A's questions using the following information: • Two special offers: Multimedia Monster - with latest Pentium CPU, 256 RAM, 40 GB Hard Drive, Monitor included - $2,500 AND Office Taskmaster - cheaper CPU, 64 RAM, 10 GB Hard Drive, Monitor not included - $1,200 • 1 Year guaranty on all computers • Discount of 5% for orders of more than five computers 3. Leaving a Message
You want to speak to Ms Braun about your account with her company, W&W. If Ms Braun isn't in the office, leave the following information: • Your name • Telephone number: 347-8910 (or use your own) • Calling about changing conditions of your contract with W&W • You can be reached until 5 o'clock at the above number. If Ms Braun calls after 5 o'clock, she should call 458-2416
You are a receptionist at W&W. Student A would like to speak to Ms Braun, but she is out of the office. Take a message and make sure you get the following information: • Name and telephone number - ask student A to spell the surname • Message student A would like to leave for Ms Braun • How late Ms Braun can call student A at the given telephone number 4. Selling Your Product
You are a salesperson for Red Inc. You are telephoning a client who you think might be interested in buying your new line of office supplies. Discuss the following information with your client: • New line of office supplies including: copy-paper, pens, stationary, mouse-pads and white boards • You know the customer hasn't ordered any new products during this past year • Special discount of 15% for orders placed before next Monday • Any order placed before Monday will not only receive the discount, but also have its company logo printed on the products at no extra charge
You work in an office and receive a telephone call from your local office supplier. As a matter fact, you need some new office supplies so you are definitely interested in what the salesperson has to offer. Talk about the following: • New pens, stationary and white boards • Do they have any special offers • You would like to place an order for 200 packages of copy paper immediately
Previous note Unit-3
A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed to members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value.
News releases Vs. News Article
A news release is different from a news article. A news article is a compilation of facts developed by journalists published in the news media, whereas a news release is designed to be sent to journalists in order to encourage them to develop articles on the subject.
Elements of Press Release
Headline - used to grab the attention of journalists and briefly summarize the news.
Dateline - contains the release date and usually the originating city of the press release.
Introduction - first paragraph in a press release, that generally gives a brief idea of the matter
Body - further explanation, statistics, background, or other details relevant to the news.
Boilerplate - generally a short "about" section, providing independent background on the issuing company, organization, or individual
Media Contact Information - name, phone number, email address, mailing address, or other contact information for the PR or other media relations contact person.
Style • No underline or emphasizing • No Exclamation • Do not start a sentence with a number • Keep track on spelling and grammar
• Letter head – not to be published on newspaper • Date • Headline • Background details • Customer benefits • Contact person’s detail • Attachments / Enclosures
Embargoed news release
Sometimes a news release is embargoed that is, news organizations are requested not to report the story until a specified time.
Work Rules • Rules are essential for existence of any organization. They are predetermined decisions to guide actions during any type of contingencies. • They are not to take away the freedom of employees but to ensure each employee and the management is getting maximum freedom that they have.
Examples of work rules • Rules pertaining to start and stop work • Rest periods • Insubordination (disobedience) • Fighting or drinking on the job • Smoking in hazardous areas • Report of injuries • Time – keeping
Common List of offences • Absence without notice • Dishonesty, Deception, Fraud. • Possession of liquor on the job • Deliberate damage to materials and property • Fighting on the job • Stealing • Falsification of accounts • Failure to meet work standard • Smoking in prohibited areas • Use of abusive, threatening, profane language. • Insubordination • Repeated tardiness (Delay) • Carrying concealed weapons • Immoral conduct (corrupt) • Sleeping on duty • Irregular work schedule
This is a written statement that describes the main features of the job. The information collected is to be developed in the form of a job description. This is a written statement that describes the main features of the job, as well the qualification or activities which the incumbents must posses.
Job Description is an important document, which is a basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. It provides both organizational and functional information’s. It defines the job activities, major responsibilities and positioning of the job. A job description statement contents following items;
(i) Job identity:
This includes job title, location, and occupational code, Alternative name in use, name of the division, department and unit where it exists.
(ii) Job Summary:
This gives a quick explanation of the contents of a job, its hazards or difficulties and discomforts.
(iii) Duties Performed:
It describes the responsibilities of a worker in regard to custody of money, supervision of other workers, training of subordinates.
(iv) Relation with other jobs:
This gives an extended view of the job. It is possible to show a fact figure of personnel to supervise.
(v) Supervision given or taken: This is helpful to locate the job in the job hierarchy.
(vi) Machines, Tools, Equipments: Types of machineries and materials used.
(vii) Form of Materials in Used: Information of unit job.
(viii) Condition of work:
Location- Factory / Office / Inside / Outside / underground / solitary place.
Time – Day / Night / Overtime
Posture – Standing / Sitting / Stopping / Climbing / Walking / Reaching / Lifting
Speed – Quick / Moderate / Slow
Accuracy – Coarse / Fine / Exacting
(ix) Health Conditions:
Infrastructure – Ventilation / Illumination
Physical Strain – Nerve strain / Eye strain / Physical strain
Pollution – Moisture / Heat / Dust / Humidity / Fumes / Acids / Dirt / Noise
Accidents - Physical hazards
Statement of procedures • It is the specification describing how a specific task or a series of tasks are to be performed. • Mostly they are a series of steps or instructions that are to be followed. • See an example: #17. Example – statement of procedures
Example – statement of procedures
Format of Statement of Procedures • Title • Declaration (If previous is available) • Messages • Caution (if require) • Name and designation • Date line
Health and Safety Statement • It is a legal obligation of the company. • Freely available for the employees for their reference • Must explain the objectives of health & safety criteria that the organization takes
Format of health & safety statement
• Organization’s name • Title • Purpose line • Message • Duration (If require)
Example- Health & Safety statement
Ideas, Information or Opinion
Procedures for weekly backup of system data
(Published March 2005) 1. Make sure that all the users of server has logged out for the week. 2. Find the relevant backup tape from the tape tray 3. Insert the backup tape to the tape drive 4. Start Windows backup tool from Start ( All Programs ( Accessories ( System tools ( Backup 5. Perform the backup operations from the Backup tool 6. Make sure you are using DIFFERENTIAL BACKUP ( 7. Once the backup is over, remove the tape and place it in the tape tray 8. Shutdown the server
A C Mark 5 March 2005
Senior System Administrator
Paramount Pvt. Ltd.
Health and Safety Policy
Health & safety at Work Act, 1956
Our statement of general policy is: • To provide adequate control of the health and safety risks arising from our work activities; • To consult with our employees on matters affecting their health and safety; • To provide and maintain safe plant and equipment; • To ensure safe handling and use of substances; • To provide information, instruction and supervision for all employees; • To prevent accidents and cases of work-related ill health; • To maintain safe and healthy working conditions; and
Signed: Date: Review date:
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