British Airways- Case Study
The scenario upon which this paper is based relates to the British Airways Swipe Card Debacle case study from the textbook, Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspective Approach (Akin, Dunford, & Palmer, 2009). The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the organizational change associated to the implementation of a new swipe card system that led to strike of over 250 British Airways check-in staff, losing 40 million pounds and negatively effecting the company’s reputation. Additionally, this paper will relate the case study to several change approaches (organizational development, sense-making, change management, contingency, and processual) and identify key issues. Additionally, this paper will examine the case study from my perspective, as if I were a hired change consultant for British Airways responsible for providing advise and recommendations on how to avoid this type of situation. Additionally, as a change consultant, I provide my recommendation as to what possible change approach or combinations of a change approach would have been best to use for the swipe card change initiative. Change Perspective and Key Issues
Prior to going into being able to effectively provide advise and recommendations on this case study, it is first important to discuss aspects of different change approaches. Additionally, relate key issues of the swipe card debacle to these change approaches. With that, this section paper will focus on identify specific aspects of the following change approaches and how these aspects relate to the case study: organizational development, sense-making, change management, contingency, and processual. Organizational Development Approach
The organizational development change approach is a well thought through and thoroughly planned change approach that focuses on staff development. Additionally, one of the key aspects to the organizational development approach is the importance placed on the need to form groups and teams, which work together to form the key focus for change (Akin, Dunford, & Palmer, 2009). Unfortunately, this very important characteristic of organizational development approach was truly not used as part of the change approach for the swipe card implementation. For instance, if groups and teams were created to form the key focus for the change, none of the 250 check-in staff were invited to participate. Sense-making Approach
The sense-making approach is very similar to Kurt Lewin’s organizational change model. At a high-level, this model has three primary stages known as Unfreeze (identifying where the company is at, in relation to environmental change and organizational structure), Change (period of time where the change is being made), and Refreeze (change is complete and the organization has embedded the change within its culture) (Levasseur, 2001). However, there is one slight difference with the sense-making approach, in that the second stage is more the about rebalance where the organization balances the external environment with its internal environment. An example of a key issue associated to this from the case study is the fact that it appears those responsible for the Future Size and Shape recovery program, did not take the first stage into consideration. More specifically, the group did not factor in how the company was still recovering from environmental changes such as, 9/11, Iraqi war, and SARS. Additionally, did not consider if this was the right time for this type of change.
Change Management Approach
There are several different change management approaches but the one focused on within this paper is the change management approach Ten Commandments approach, developed by Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Barry A. Stein, and Todd D. Jick. In the book, The Challenges of Organizational Change, Kanter, Stein, and Jick elaborate on what they believe to be the necessary steps to effectively implement change within an...
References: Akin, G., Dunford, R., & Palmer, I. (2009). Managing organizational change: a multiple perspective approach (2nd. Ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Huy, Q. N. 2001. Time, temporal capability, and planned change.
Academy of Management Review 26(4):601–23
Kanter, R. M., Stein, B. A., & Jick, T. D. (1992). The challenge of organizational change. New York, NY: Free Press.
Levasseur, R. E. (2001). People Skills:Change Management Tools--Lewin 's Change Model. Interfaces, 31(4), 71.
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