CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS
Construction Materials and Methods Used in the Building of Burj Khalifa Submitted to:
Dr. Gary Winek
In partial fulfillment of the requirements in:
Shawn H. Harper
Texas State University–San Marcos
Located in Dubai, the Burj Khalifa (Burj Dubai) is currently the World’s tallest building after being completed in 2010. At 2,717 feet tall, the tower has 163 stories, most are used for residential living but some are used for business suites, restaurants, commercial, and an eight-story Georgio Armani Hotel and nightclub. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill used a three-lobed design with a buttressed core in order to achieve max height and efficiency. Notches were also used to help cut down on unstable wind patterns. Having over 24,000 windows, they use a state-of-the-art unmanned system to wash them. The engineers chose to use double-paned low-E windows, and utilize the humidity of the region to gain efficiency in cooling the air and water.
Construction Materials and Methods Used in the Building of Burj Khalifa
Situated in downtown Dubai, the world’s tallest building has finally made its ay back to the Middle East. Not since the Great Pyramids of Giza has this region claimed the record, and now with Burj Khalifa they have set the bar high. The tower now sits on the “triple-crown” of height records, meaning it claims not only the tallest building, but also the tallest standing structure ever made (Baker, 2010). Sitting at a staggering 2,717 feet tall, Burj Khalifa (formally named Burj Dubai) easily surpasses the previous record by more then 1,000 feet, with a spire alone being over 700 feet tall. Completed in January of 2010, the great minds at Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) dished out a whopping $1.5 billion to construct the finished product, earning them their 10th world record setting building to date. The building itself incorporates a three-lobed design, very similar to a “Y”. This makes the building perfect for residential use because it allows for very encompassing views, and direct sunlight to all parts of the residence (Baker, 2010) The Burj Khalifa is the first “World’s Tallest Building” to incorporate residential use, with 77 of it’s 163 floors used for living space, along with the 8 story Armani Hotel at its base. The building also is home to the world’s tallest restaurant; cleverly named Atmosphere, and the second tallest observatory deck (Minutillo, 2010). Construction of Burj Khalifa
Construction of Burj Khalifa started in 2004, being modeled after a similar style building named The Palace III. It was not intended to be the tallest building in the world, but just to be proportionate, and not “stubby” like the other three-lobed designs before it (Baker, 2010) Dubai is a very iconic region, and SOM wanted to produce a building that would be the icon for this icon. It wanted people to think of this building when they thought of Dubai and they most certainly achieved it. Design Shape
Dubai itself does not pose threat with any natural forces, it does not sit on a fault-line nor does it have a legit concern about typhoons or high winds. But, when a building of this magnitude is developed all factors are exponentially increased. The original plans of Burj Khalifa had to be trimmed and tailored many times based off of experiments with a small-scale wind tunnel. Because of the poor aerodynamics of the “Y” shaped approach, the building was overly susceptible to high winds. Engineers had to shape and mold the building into a form that would in-since work with nature. The team developed notches on each floor that required the wind to flow evenly through the design while at the same time controlling itself and not compounding to cause greater force. The weight of gravity was then used to anchor the design, and create a finished product that allowed the height of the...
References: Baker, W. F. (2010, March 1). Engineering an idea: the realization of Burj Khalifa. Civil engineering, 80(3), 44-47. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from ebsco (08857024).
Baker, W. F., & Pawlikowski, J. J. (2012, October 1). Higher and higher: the evolution of the buttressed core. Civil engineering, 58-65. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from EBSCO (08857024).
Doben, M. (2010, January 5). So you think your windows are hard to keep clean? The age traveler, p. 1. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from http://www.theage.com.au/travel/so-you-think-your-windows-are-hard-to-keep-clean-20100104-lq5x.html
Minutillo, J. (2010). Beyond limits: the Burj Khalifa 's designers tackle extreme height and extreme climate to create a landmark for the 21st century. Architectural Record, 198(8), 89-92.
Nasvik, J. (2008, February). The Burj Dubai. Concrete construction, 53(6), 1. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/detail?vid=5&sid=78ef010b-6e7e-4322-9500-858ea8da28e0%40sessionmgr104&hid=3&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=asf&AN=501211136
Please join StudyMode to read the full document