Burj Khalifa Tower
Phaedra Rosengarth, Joseph Barlow, Steve Corrales, Vanthea Chhim, and Kenneth Gottschalk ITT Tech - Lathrop
Burj al Khalifa Tower
The Burj Khalifa, known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration, is a megatall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is the tallest man-made structure in the world, at 829.8 m (2,722 ft). The Burj Khalifa skyscraper is a world-class destination and the magnificent centerpiece of Downtown Dubai, Dubai's new urban masterpiece. Cost of Construction
The Burj Khalifa tower was reported to cost an estimate of $4.1 Billion. The construction of the Burj Khalifa required 330,000 cubic meters of concrete, the foundation alone using over 45,000. This foundation consists of 192 concrete piles, which are each buried 50 meters beneath the surface. 31,400 metric tons of steel rebar were used to reinforce the concrete. All this rebar laid end to end would stretch over more than a quarter of the Earth. In addition to concrete and steel, other major materials used are glass, silicone, and aluminum, which make up the outside façade of the tower. The 132,000 square meter curtain wall façade of the Burj Khalifa is made of aluminum, silicone, and glass. It consists of over 24,000 panels specially designed to save energy (Betancourt, Coen, Garcia, & MacKay).
The building features more than 1.8 million square feet (174,000 square meters) of Guardian SunGuard Solar Silver 20 and Guardian ClimaGuard NLT Low-E. Together these Guardian products offer superior solar and thermal performance. The glass provides an anti-glare shield for the strong desert sun, and a high light reflectance to keep the interior from overheating. It also has to withstand extreme desert temperature swings and strong winds (“Guardian glass covers the Burj Khalifa--Burj Residence project also uses Guardian glass,” 2010).
Challenges/Obstacles of Construction
The first challenge the designers and engineers had to overcome was wind - the engineers of the tower worked the design of the structure to avoid 2 major challenges: wind and gravity. The highest-risk part of the Burj Khalifa. Designers purposely shaped the structural concrete Burj Dubai - "Y" shaped in plan - to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability (Goyal, 2013). The structural system can be described as a "buttressed" core. Each wing, with its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter columns, buttresses the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. The result is a tower that is extremely stiff laterally and torsional. The engineers applied a rigorous geometry to the tower that aligned all the common central core, wall, and column elements. Each tier of the building sets back in a spiral stepping pattern up the building. The setbacks are organized with the Tower's grid, such that the building stepping is accomplished by aligning columns above with walls below to provide a smooth load path. This allows the construction to proceed without the normal difficulties associated with column transfers. The downturn of the global economy was another challenge that had to be overcome. Emaar, a Dubai based International Real Estate Company and general contractor for the project was also affected in the downturn of the real estate market which took place in 2008 as the price of property of the Burj Dubai was cut in half while the downtown properties surrounding the Burj fell by at least 22%. The global economic downturn caused a significant rise in the cost of raw materials in 2008, the price of Iron alone had risen by 75% as did other materials such as aluminum and concrete which ultimately caused an unexpected increase of construction costs (“Burj Khalifa,” 2014). Construction is a third challenge. The process of selecting the right equipment to ensure delivery of materials and workers effectively and efficiently is an art in its own right....
References: Betancourt, P., Coen, T., Garcia, J., & MacKay, J. (n.d.). Materials. https://sites.google.com/site/burjkhalifatower/directory
Burj Khalifa. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/khaledalshami93/burj-khalifa-33159196?related=1
Challenges & innovations. (2014). https://sites.google.com/site/burjkhalifa207sp/challenges
Essays, UK. (2014). Project Time Management of Burj Khalifa Economics Essay. Retrieved from http://www.ukessays.com/essays/economics/project-time-management-of-burj-khalifa-economics-essay.php
Goyal, D. (2013). Burj Khalifa 2. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/divam264/burj-khalifa-27089241?related=3
Guardian glass covers the Burj Khalifa--Burj Residence project also uses Guardian glass. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glassonweb.com/news/index/10714/
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