Since bullying is quite a social problem in Japan as elsewhere, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the issue, try to help the victims of bullying, and think about how to prevent bullying in the future. In order to solve the problem, this paper aims to explain what bullying is, examine survey data and cases of bullying in Japan, and think about causes and possible solutions for bullying. I believe that everyone must have equal rights to receive education. Children need to be able to relax and sleep soundly. They need to make friends and play well together. They need to communicate with their parents and teachers. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to improve the situation by understanding bullying and suggesting possible solutions. Bullying and its Effects on People
Bullying is when people use their strength or power of some kind to hurt weaker people. Sometimes it involves direct attacks such as hitting, name-calling, teasing or taunting. Often parents and teachers dismiss bullying among kids as a normal part of growing up, but bullying is harmful. It can lead children and teenagers to feel tense and afraid. If kids try to stop it, they may become the next target of bullying. Being bullied may lead them to avoid school. In severe cases, teenagers who are bullied may feel they need to take drastic measures or to react violently. Others even consider suicide, so the effects of bullying last a lifetime. Data on Bullying in Japan
According to a survey of 464 junior high school students in Japan, "Have you ever experienced bullying?" was asked, and unfortunately about 190 students had been bullied before. "Have you ever seen bullying?" was also asked, and 198 students answered "Yes" (Morita, 1999, pp. 18-19). In another survey, "If you are bullied, will you depend on your teacher or parents?" was asked, and most of the students answered "No" (Oki, 1998, p. 14). Most of these students do not trust in parents and teachers, thinking the latter are very busy. Many parents have jobs, and they are out until late at night, so they do not have enough time to talk with their children. Also, teachers have a lot of classes and work, so they have little extra time. As a result, many parents and teachers are not aware of bullying. But if they dismiss the problem or do not care about it, I think it shows a lack of communication with children. According to interviews with teenagers who had attempted suicide, most said that they did it because they were trying to escape from a situation that seemed impossible to deal with, or to get relief from very bad thoughts or feelings. But they did not want to die as much as they wanted to escape from what was going on. Also some young people who end their lives or attempt suicide might be trying to escape from feelings of rejection, hurt or loss. Some might be angry, ashamed, or guilty about something. Others may be worried about disappointing friends or family members. Yet others may feel unwanted, unloved, victimized, or as if they are a burden on others (Oki, 1998, pp. 14-27). They should be aware of their own anxiety. So if teachers and parents communicate with children, they may be able to protect them from bullying or its ill effects. Teachers and parents should take the initiative and communicate with all of their children to sound them out about any problems they may have. Some Causes of Bullying
Children have various needs, such as to be able to relax enough, play with friends, and sleep soundly. The frustration of their needs may cause some children to bully others. Many children have to study hard until late in the evening, and they go to cram schools, because their parents have high expectations of them, hoping they get good grades or pass entrance examinations (Tsuchiya, 2001, pp. 67-68). So if students do not have enough time to rest or sleep, they have stress. They may take this stress out on their friends or other students by shouting or bullying....
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