BULGARIA SLOW TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY
Political Actors and Behaviors I
Universidad Carlos III
Monday, May 13, 2014
Following the revolution of 1989, communist countries started the challenging road to the consolidation of democratization. These countries that had been under the communist regime for several decades have to reorganize the country under specific policies and structure. Historical and Socio-economic context of Bulgaria are explored as they are for post communism indicators of the how well democratic consolidation is done relative to other central eastern European countries. In Bulgaria, the absence of opposition party before 1989, the structure and orientation of the political institution, the presence of a substantial ethnic minority, the weak parliament and the lack of experience of the personal are all factors that impact Bulgaria’s transition to democracy. Furthermore the development of the Bulgarian Communist Party is monitored until it became recognized as a democratic center left party. Indeed, in late 90’s this party was viewed as illegitimate and discredited however it still was in power for several years after the fall of communism and returned to power in the 21st century. This party has been in the political sphere since 1944 had a notable impact on party politics and on government policies and reform efforts and its development is a valuable indicator of Bulgaria position within its transition to democracy. Also is analyzed the development of democracy within Bulgaria after 7 years of status-quo. And the new way to the NATO and European Union. The political actors will be introduced and the election results after 1997. Literature Review
During the WWI, Bulgaria was allied with the axis power but couldn't provide them with much help in regards of resources and troops. In September 1944, Russia declared war on Bulgaria however this was perceived as a friendly takeover of Soviet-Unions liberating them from German occupation. In the same year, The Fatherland's Front (FF) which was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement against German dictatorship that allied communist Bulgarian workers and democrats worker, successfully took over power by “un coup” with the help of the Soviet Army and ceased fire with the Soviet Union. As of this moment, the communist regime had taken political power and would increase its domination within the country in the following years. Through legal means, they eliminated opposing parties and rigged election to make sure they maintained political control. The fascists which were defined by the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) as any individual who opposed the communists in the past or in the future where exposed to persecution and assassination and to severe sentence as deportation, incarceration, life imprisonment until death sentence. In 1946, the monarchy was abolished and the BCP won the last multi-party election with questioned methods. Bulgaria becomes officially a communist state for the 43 years. In 1947,the leader of the main opposition, Nikola Petkov, was charged with high treason and sentenced to death. Georgi Dimitrov is at the head of the BCP and commenced with the nationalization of the state and confiscating all private property and converting all public institution into private ones. Within the first years that Dimitrov was in power, many social, economic and political drastic changes occurred. Temporarily the economy seemed to be going well in terms of production and labor and an important shift occurred from agriculture to industrial activities and a demographic movement of the population from rural to urban area. Dimitrov’s government guaranteed employment, free education and universal medical care however prohibited any activities that jeopardize the control of the communist regime with severe sanctions. Bulgaria was often said the little brother of the Soviet Union and many...
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