Computer: We are living in the age of modern science. We can see the creation and invention of science all around us. From morning till we go to bed at night we use the invention of science. Computer is one of the greatest and valuable invention of modern science. The word “Computer” came from the Latin word “computatrum”. Basically, computer is an electronic device which has the capability of receiving command and turning the command into result. Computer has also the capability to manipulate, save and retrieve data or information. A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions (software) stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate data (process), and produce information (output) from the processing. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system. Computers can perform four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle. Input
Central processing unit (CPU), motherboard, input devices, output devices, power supply, backing storage devices and other peripheral devices are the main components of a Computer. To run a computer all these components should run altogether. By working together, these components makes up a system that can transfer commands to central processing unit; identify the actions needed to carry out the commands and complete the commands with ease. That is Computer System. Basically, a computer works by the help of five major functional categories of devices. Those are: Processing unit, internal memory, Input, Output and Storage.
Internal Memory: An Internal memory of a computer is kind of a temporary storage system which is used by the computer system while starting up the computer to run programs and softwares. Internal memories have small chips which are either connected to the motherboards or have specific slots to connect them. The sizes of some internal memories like virtual memory, boot memory and processor cache can be some megabytes. Size of one internal memory which is RAM can be up to 32GB. Input: Computer cannot run or work by itself. It needs to be operated by human. We need to insert data, information or give command so that it can be processed. That’s why we need some devices which are called Input devices. Example: keyboard, mouse, headphones etc.
Processing Unit: When you insert commands via input devices internal memories carry the data here to be processed. The processing unit is called the CPU (central processing unit). It’s the heart of a computer where all the data is processed for an output result. By the processing unit all the work, data analysis, program running and other stuffs are done in a sharp way. The whole processing unit is divided into two working parts. Those are Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and Control Unit (CU).
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): Arithmetic logic unit process all the arithmetic calculation like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, formulas and logic comparisons. Besides, ALU can directly access to the input devices, output devices and random access memory (RAM) to process or control programs and upon completion ALU processes the work to storage device to save the documents. ALU runs upon codes which is called machine code. The codes define ALU to run programs or to perform an operation and save it on hard drive.
Control Unit: Control unit controls all the operation by giving proper timing and generating signals. It also decides how much data can be transferred from input to processor and processor to output and other peripheral devices. Control unit also connects the whole system to flow information from running programs. Control unit gives direction to Arithmetic Logic Unit to complete the arithmetic solution perfectly. It also participates in the activities of the peripheral devices and other storage...
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