BSc Participant

Topics: Natural resource, Natural environment, Management Pages: 7 (1845 words) Published: September 12, 2014




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QN: Critic the method and approaches used for natural resource management in Zimbabwe [30]

They are various methods and approaches that are used in Zimbabwe for the management of natural resources. The methods and approaches can be broadly grouped into three categories which are; command and control regulations, economic instruments and the participatory approach. These approaches can be implemented through the following methods, analytical, participatory, regulatory, protected area, systems approach, socio-cultural approaches and economic approaches. Command and control regulations- it’s an approach where political authorities mandate people, by enacting a law, to bring about a behaviour and use an enforcement machinery to get people to obey the law. It’s an environmental management strategy where the government or responsible authorities sets standards to protect and manage the natural resources. This technique covers the regulatory and protected areas approaches. In Zimbabwe the regulations involve the bylaws, legislative, reserved or protected areas and bio monitoring. The government of Zimbabwe construct national parks like Gonarezhou National park, sanctuaries, Safari areas, recreational areas, botanical gardens/ reserves, state forests. The protected area is an area of land or sea dedicated to the protection of and maintenance of biodiversity, natural resources and associated cultural resources. This approach worked well in Zimbabwe as this was evidenced by the creation of many national and recreational parks thought it resulted in some negative impacts to the communities where these projects were done. Some of the problems were relocation of communities, poaching of the resources by the nearby communities for example the recent issue where 20 elephants were killed in Kariba The approach of protected areas in town is appearing no to be considered when different developments are taking place in Zimbabwe. A good example when the city council of Chitungwiza gave residential stands on wetland areas of Zengeza 4. Another good example it’s the construction of the new shopping mall that is along Harare-Bulawayo road, that place was reserved by the city fathers of Harare as a wetland. This shows that the approach of protected areas in towns is not considered. This evidences the conflicts between economic development and conservation of resources using this approach. Another challenge faced by Zimbabwe from these protected areas is land, some of these areas require very large pieces of land, and for example the Gonarezhou National Park is approximately 5000 km2, and this is a very large piece of land that can be used for other economic uses. But on the other hand these areas can serves as income generation to the country through eco-tourism. Another approach involves the regulatory policies and pieces of legislation. On legislation various acts have been put in place to date for the management of natural resources in Zimbabwe. Some of the acts and policies are Forest, Minerals, Wildlife, Environmental management Acts. Some of the Acts are; Native husbandry Act (1951), National Parks & Wildlife Act (1975), National Parks & Wildlife Amendment Act (1984), Communal Land Act (1982) and the Water Act (1976). Described below are some of the Acts; The Zimbabwe Environmental Management Act (2004) provides for the sustainable management of natural resources and protection of the environment; the prevention of pollution and environmental degradation. The Act also provides for the preparation of a National Environmental Plan and other plans for the protection of the environment. The implementing 134 agency of the Act is the Environmental Management Agency and Ministry of...

References: Barrow . C J (2006) Environmental Management for Sustainable Development. Library of Congress, London
Beder . S (2006) Environmental Principles and Policies. Earthscan Ltd, London
Byrne . K (2001) Environmental Science. Nelson Thornes, London
Hardoy et al. (2001) Environmental problems in an Urbanizing World. Earthscan Ltd, London
Lockwood et al. (2006) Managing Protected Areas. Earthscan Ltd, London
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