Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas
The case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas was the winning case that leads to the desegregation of public schools all across America. Brown v. Board of Education solved six cases from four different states; South Carolina, Virginia, Kansas, and Delaware, all pleading for the desegregation of schools.(Leon) The case solved the issue of segregation in schools, forever changing the mindsets of children across America. The case of Brown V. Board has an everlasting affect on public schools all across America, desegregating schools all across the nation has had a lasting effect on the views of the different races across America. Oliver Brown, an African American, was angered and disturbed when his two daughters were not allowed into a nearby school in their town. The two girls had to walk a long distance through a railroad switchyard, just to get to their black school. Mr. Brown’s daughters were not allowed into their nearby school because they were African American and that school was for the white race. Mr. Brown decided to take this to the court going against the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in 1951. (Clayborne) Not the first of the desegregation cases, but the case that solved it all. Mr. Brown decided to partner with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in order to broaden his chances of winning, with the help of George E. C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James M. Nabrit Jr., Mr. Brown could reach his goal of desegregating schools. Mr. Brown dedicated his time to find the right lawyers, and soon his team of lawyers from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People took the case to court and had a long struggle that was worth the wait. After getting to the district courts and wining favor of the court the case moved to the U.S. Supreme Court. Chief Justice Fred Vinson did not reach a conclusion and decided to keep the “separate but equal” decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, from 1896. After gaining favor of the district courts, Mr. Brown and the lawyers from the National Association for Advancement of Colored People faced their greatest challenge in 1952 when they reached the Supreme Court. Chief Justice Fred Vinson and the court did not come to a conclusion and decided to rehear the case in December of 1953. During those months Chief Justice Fred Vinson died, and President Eisenhower appointed the Governor of California, Earl Warren as the new Chief Justice. Chief Justice Earl Warren accomplished what Fred Vinson could not. (History of Brown v. Board) Mr. Brown and the lawyers from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, lead by Thurgood Marshall used the work of Kenneth Clark who studied the effects of segregation on the African American children in America, to their advantage. Clark’s experiment proved that segregation and discrimination had a negative effect on how African American children see themselves. (Clayborne)The court reached a unanimous decision and on May 17th, 1954 the court ordered, “Segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a greater effect upon the colored children. The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law; for the policy of separating races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the Negro group. A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of a child to learn. Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to [retard] the educational and mental development of Negro children and to deprive them of some benefits they would receive in a racially integrated school system.” (Leon) The court had finally decided that segregation in public schools in unlawful. Chief Justice Earl Warren delivered the court’s...
Bibliography: Carson, Clayborne. Civil Rights Chronicle: The African-American Struggle for Freedom. Lincolnwood, IL: Legacy, 2003. Print.
Friedman, Leon. The Civil Rights Reader: Basic Documents of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Walker, 1967. Print
"History of Brown v. Board of Education." USCOURTSGOV RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.
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