Topics: Nitration, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Benzene Pages: 3 (749 words) Published: April 14, 2014
Mona Vaidya
April 8, 2014
Professor Diaz
Chem 317
Section: 20711
Lab Experiment: Nitration of Bromobenzene
Introduction: The chemical reaction of nitration consists of a nitro group being added to or substituted in a molecule. Nitration can basically be carried out by a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid; this mixture is useful to obtain the active nitronium ion. Electrophilic aromatic substitution is a method used when a functional group is needed to be substituted on to an aromatic compound. In the nitration, nitronium ion acts as the electrophile that involves the attack of the electron-rich benzene ring.

Aromatic substitution is electrophilic, due to the high density in benzene ring. Benzene ring is one of the components in most important natural products and other useful products. The species reacting with the aromatic ring is usually a positive ion or the end of a dipole. Nitration is one of the most important examples of electrophilic substitution. The electrophile in nitration is the nitronium ion which is generated from nitric acid by protonation and loss of water, using sulfuric acid as the dehydrating agents. Data:

Weight (grams)
39.1 grams
Beaker + Crystals
41.9 grams
Weight of Crystals (Prior to Addition of Ethanol)
2.8 grams
Figure 1: This table illustrates the weight of the crystals that were formed before the ethanol was added. 2.8 grams x 5= 14 mL
- This is the amount of ethanol that is needed to just dissolve the bromonitrobenzenes at 78.2oC.

Weight (grams)
Wet Sample of Crystals
1.40 grams
Dry Sample of Crystals
0.95 grams
Difference Between Wet and Dry Samples
0.45 grams
Figure 2: This table illustrates the weight of the crystals that were formed as the final product. The wet sample and dry sample both have a different value.

Figure 3: This is the structure of bromobenzene; this was the liquid that was given for this laboratory experiment.

Figure 4:...
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