The Effect of Ethanol on the Viability of Artemia salina as Environmental Indicators
Biology 151 Laboratory
Artemia salina are used as environmental indicator species. They are used to test changes in their environment. A. salina is sensitive to toxins, temperature, and drugs. For the experiment, cysts were put into different amounts of ethanol alcohol and their viability was measured. The hypothesis used was if there is more ethanol alcohol, then the viability of the brine shrimp is unfavorable. The brine shrimp were put into sixteen Petri dishes with the same amount of brine solution. Different amounts of ethanol alcohol were added to each Petri dish. After 168 hours, the brine shrimp were looked at under a microscope and some cysts became nauplii and many died. In the control dishes, with no alcohol, the viability was the lowest; the average viability for treatment one was not the lowest but treatment four was the lowest. Treatment two had the highest viability (Table 1). Treatment one, 0.1668, versus treatment three, 0.1224, and treatment four, 0.0478, confirms that small amounts of ethanol alcohol can be accepted by the A. salina. The numbers of cysts in each Petri dish were not consistent. If the number of cysts were consistent then the comparison between viabilities in each dish would be more accurate. The importance of the average viability is that it is used as representative data. It will help show the inaccuracies of the data recorded. The purpose of this experiment is determine the aptness of A. salina as warnings of ethanol pollution.
Artemia, or commonly known as brine shrimp, live in hyper-saline lakes. Artemia begin as dormant cysts, which contains an embryo in a diapause state. When water temperature and salinity changes occur, the cysts rehydrate and releases the first growth stage, known as nauplius larva. The cysts are very small and about fifty could fit on a small pin (“Brine Shrimp,” 2013). Hence, `1using the toothpick worked just fine. Nauplii molt about fifteen times until they reach adult size (“Brine Shrimp,” 2013).
A. salina are known as an environmental indicator species, which means they are used to measure toxins, drugs, and other chemicals. Brine shrimp are sensitive to temperature and salinity levels, which is why they are good test organisms (Lu et al., 2012). Brine shrimp were put into ethyl alcohol to test their viability. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the suitability of A. salina as indicators of ethanol pollution. Due to natural selection, A. salina females can change their reproductive manner as an adaptive response from environmental stressors (Gajardo et al., 2006).
It was hypothesized that the amount of ethyl alcohol added to the A. salina environment causing the viability to be negative. The reasoning behind the hypothesis is that since brine shrimp are environmental indicator species, then they would be prone to changes. The purpose of monitoring A. salina is to determine the viability in ethyl alcohol. This experiment is known as a bioassay, which means to experiment levels of toxicity. A. salina are very good for experiments such as this because they are inclined to minute changes, reliable, and cost efficient (Lu et al., 2012). This experiment can be done in an outside pond or inside a lab (Lu et al., 2012). MATERIALS AND METHODS
Petri dishes were labeled according to their treatment and 10 mL of brine solution was added to each dish. The following ethanol alcohol solutions were prepared: 0.10 mL in treatment one, 0.25 mL in treatment two, 0.5 mL in treatment three, and 0.0 mL in treatment four. Treatment four is the control therefore no alcohol was added. 0.2 cm was measured from the end of the toothpick. The toothpicks were dipped into the eggs up to the 0.2 cm mark to transfer the brine shrimp eggs into all the Petri dishes by stirring the toothpicks into...
Cited: "Brine Shrimp and Ecology of Great Salt Lake." USGS Utah Water Science Center: Great Salt Lake. U.S. Geological Survey, 10 Jan. 2013. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. .
Gajardo, Gonzalo M., Patrick Sorgeloos, and John A. Beardmore. "Abstract." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 28 Nov. 2006. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. .
Lu, Yin, Xiaolu Xu, Tian Li, Yifei Xu, and Xu Wu. "The Use of a Brine Shrimp (Artemia Salina) Bioassay to Assess the Water Quality in Hangzhou Section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal - Springer." The Use of a Brine Shrimp (Artemia Salina) Bioassay to Assess the Water Quality in Hangzhou Section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal - Springer. N.p., 01 Mar. 2012. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. .
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