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brief description of two universal personality traits

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Personality traits can be influenced by countless aspects of an individual’s life: genetics, environment, and culture are key ingredients in a person’s traits and personality. According to Erickson our personality traits come in opposites. We think of ourselves as optimistic, pessimistic, independent or dependent which are inborn traits. McCrae et al. (2000) noted the optimal conditions for infant development must take into account the actual circumstances in which children in different cultures live. Culture effects personality in a variety of ways. Behaviors tend to be culturally patterned with childhood experiences influencing personality as an adult and socialization throughout childhood and adulthood shape personality patterns. We often share personality traits with others, especially members of our own family and community. It is normal for us to acquire personality traits as a result of enculturation. Most people adopt the traditions, rules, manners, and biases of their culture.
The Chinese focus is fosters interdependence and cooperation. A different set of conditions prevails in areas in which children are born into very poor and hostile environments. Mothers of children living, for example, in the areas of Africa have different beliefs about childrearing that seem uncaring by the standards of middle-class Western societies. They view children who are developmentally delayed or who have quiet temperaments as weak and unlikely to survive and as a consequence might neglect these children.
With regards to mating strategy, most Chinese and African marriages are lasting, divorces are rare, and parents invest heavily in children education. There is also high value on chastity and virginity.
We all have our values, beliefs and preferences; it is all part of who we are. But knowing how to balance our personal and professional attitudes is very important for development. As a scholar-practitioner, I am required to provide the same quality of support for all, not just for those who share my values and beliefs. Knowing about culture-specific personality traits makes me aware of individual differences

References
Friedman, H.S. & Schustack, M.W. (2009) Personality: classic theories and modern research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
McCrae, R., Costa, P., Ostendorf, F., Angleitner, A., Hrebícková, M., Avia, M., & ... Smith, P. (2000). Nature over nurture: temperament, personality, and life span development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(1), 173-186.

References: Friedman, H.S. & Schustack, M.W. (2009) Personality: classic theories and modern research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. McCrae, R., Costa, P., Ostendorf, F., Angleitner, A., Hrebícková, M., Avia, M., & ... Smith, P. (2000). Nature over nurture: temperament, personality, and life span development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(1), 173-186.

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