Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
Bowlby’s attachment theory is based on the evolution. He suggests that when children are born they already are programed to form attachment with others because it is an important factor in surviving. Bowlby believed that need of attachment is instinctive and will be activated by any conditions that seem to threaten the achievement such as insecurity, separation and fear. He also mentioned that fear of strangers is also natural factor which is important in survival of the infant. New-born children also developed the tendency to display certain innate behaviours also called social releasers which help to ensure contact with the caregiver, these are crying, smiling, crawling etc. Which are specific behaviours to our species, this means when the infant produce these innate behaviours they stimulate the amount of care the infant get from its caregiver. So the determinant of attachment isn’t food but care and responsiveness, which is opposite to the learning theory which says that attachment between infant and caregiver is based on fact the caregiver is supplying food to infant which is pleasurable and afterwards infant feel pleasure when the caregiver is present. Bowlby hypothesized that both infants and mothers developed a biological need to stay in contact with each other through the evolution process. He also suggested that every child would form only one attachment and that the attachment figure acted as a secure base for exploring the environment around child therefore disrupting this attachment can have serve consequences on child’s mental disorder in future. Bowlby believed that there should be an attachment children form primarily and it’s different and much stronger than any other bond, it was usually attachment with child’s mother. When children are signalling their innate behaviours caregivers instinctively respond to their children’s behaviour creating a reciprocal pattern of interaction. This is the main base in Bowlby’s...
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