Botany: Study Guide

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9.1.2 3 difference between monocots and dicots
3 differences between monocots and dicots
1. Monocots have parallel venations along their leaf
2. Dicot roots have X-shaped xylem whereas monocots are organized into a ring
3. Dicot stem xylem form a ring around the outside whereas monocot xylems are scattered

9.1.3 Distribution of tissues in leaves and functions
In the leaf you have xylem and phloem tissues. Xylem tissues act like transport tubes, transporting water and minerals. Phloem tissues are used to transport sugars and water (sap). When each of these tissues are connected with each other throughout the plant, they form a circulatory system.
9.1.4 modification of roots * Roots become swollen with food (starch, oils, etc) for storage in cortex cells * All have a “uniform” shape and typical of biennials * All contain vascular tissue in the center
Modification of stem- stem tubers * Stem growth is downward into soil with sections growing into tubers * Tubers are food storage * Buds on stem can also grow to form stems and roots * Identified as stems due to vascular bundles in a ring
Modification of leaves * Leaf bases grow to form a bulb * Bulb is used for storage * Leaves in bulb are recognizable through their series of leaf bases that fit together with a central shoot apical meristem * Very few chloroplasts
Modification of leaves/stem-tendril * Tendrils are outgrowths from leaves/ stems that rotate through the air until they touch an object * When contact is made, growth is accelerated (on side with contact) to facilitate wrapping around object * Provides support and allows for upward growth

9.1.5 & 9.1.6 State that Dicots have lateral and apical meristems * Flowering plants have an apical meristem at the tip where cells are unspecialized and can continuously undergo mitosis * Dicot plants also have lateral meristem where the cambium in the vascular bundles of the stem and root

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