Borderline Personality Disorder 1.
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder 2.
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self image, affects, and marked impulsivity believed to affect between six and ten million Americans. This paper explores this disorders effect on relationships, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
Borderline Personality Disorder 3.
A personality disorder is an enduring pattern or inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment (Association, 5/22/2013). Borderline Personality Disorder or (BPD) interferes with one’s ability to manage emotions effectively. Although most commonly known as Borderline Personality Disorder, BPD may also be referred to as Emotional Regulation Disorder (ERD), Emotional Intensity Disorder (EID), Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder (EUPD), Emotional-Impulse Regulation Disorder (EIRD) or Impulsive Personality Disorder (IPD). Sufferers of BPD may endure deep emotional agony within their relationships while excelling in many areas of their daily lives leading to comorbid exposure to depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and other personality disorders. Showing serious disturbances in basic identity or sense of self, which is highly unstable, those affected by BPD may make desperate efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment, verbally abuse loved ones and threaten suicide. The nature of the borderline relationship is an intense and stormy one. Friends and lovers are typically over idealized and later find themselves the recipients of bitter disillusionment and disappointment. Irrational shifting in mood is common among those living with BPD; they tend to have low a tolerance for frustration, feelings of extreme emptiness and impulsive or erratic self-destructive behaviors that may include gambling, sex, substance abuse, binge-eating and reckless driving (Robert C. Carson, 1996).
Borderline Personality Disorder 4. BPD’s effect on relationships
So what is the origin of BPD? Why does BPD inflict such a destructive impact on relationships? Linehan’s biopsychosocial theory states that emotional invalidation from others results in emotional and behavioral dysregulation in the individual with BPD symptomatology (Linehan, 1993). This emotional invalidation may begin in early childhood, as individuals with BPD have reported increased feelings of conflict with parents and less support from their families during childhood (Klonsky, 2000). There are many ways in which emotional invalidation may contribute to unhealthy relationship functioning in BPD sufferers. The experience of childhood emotional invalidation may inhibit the development of social problem-solving skills, leaving individuals who later develop symptoms of BPD without knowledge of appropriate ways to handle difficulties within romantic relationships. This may cause the BPD community to resort to extreme measures as threatening or pleading because early attempts at social problem solving are discouraged or punished in an invalidating environment. It is also possible that emotional invalidation may result in cognitive disturbances where perceptions of others fluctuate between good and bad, often referred to as “splitting” (Graham, 2006) proposes that splitting may exist in...
References: Association, A. P. (5/22/2013). Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Publishing Incorporated.
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Graham, S. M. (2006). Self-esteem and organization of valenced information about others: The “Jekyll and Hyde”-ing of relationship partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Klonsky, E. O. (2000). Recollections of conflict with parents and family support in the Personality Disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders 14, 327-338.
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