Wireless Integrated Network Sensors (WINS) combine sensing, signal processing, decision capability, and wireless networking capability in a compact, low power system. Compact geometry and low cost allows WINS to be embedded and distributed at a small fraction of the cost of conventional wireline sensor and actuator systems. On a local, wide-area scale, battlefield situational awareness will provide personnel health monitoring and enhance security and efficiency. Also, on a metropolitan scale, new traffic, security, emergency, and disaster recovery services will be enabled by WINS. On a local, enterprise scale, WINS will create a manufacturing information service for cost and quality control. The opportunities for WINS depend on the development of scalable, low cost, sensor network architecture. This requires that sensor information be conveyed to the user at low bit rate with low power transceivers. Continuous sensor signal processing must be provided to enable constant monitoring of events in an environment. Distributed signal processing and decision making enable events to be identified at the remote sensor. Thus, information in the form of decisions is conveyed in short message packets. Future applications of distributed embedded processors and sensors will require massive numbers of devices. In this paper we have concentrated in the most important application, Border Security.
WINS SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Conventional wireless networks are supported by complex protocols that are developed for voice and data transmission for handhelds and mobile terminals. These networks are also developed to support communication over long range (up to 1km or more) with link bit rate over 100kbps. In contrast to conventional wireless networks, the WINS network must support large numbers of sensors in a local area with short range and low average bit rate communication (less than 1kbps). The network design must consider the requirement to service dense sensor distributions with an emphasis on recovering environment information. Multihop communication yields large power and scalability advantages for WINS networks. Multihop communication, therefore, provides an immediate advance in capability for the WINS narrow Bandwidth devices. However, WINS Multihop Communication networks permit large power reduction and the implementation of dense node distribution. The multihop communication has been shown in the figure 2. The figure 1 represents the general structure of the wireless integrated network sensors (WINS) arrangement.
low duty cycle
Figure 1. The wireless integrated network sensor (WINS) architecture.
The wireless integrated network sensor (WINS) architecture includes sensor, data converter, signal processing, and control functions. Micropower RF communication provides bidirectional network access for low bit rate, short range communication. The micropower components operate continuously for event recognition, while the network interface operates at low duty cycle. General picture of WINS[pic]
WINS NODE ARCHITECTURE
The WINS node architecture (Figure 1) is developed to enable continuous sensing, event detection, and event identification at low power. Since the event detection process must occur continuously, the sensor, data converter, data buffer, and spectrum analyzer must all operate at micro power levels. In the event that an event is detected, the spectrum analyzer output may trigger the microcontroller. The microcontroller may then issue commands for additional signal processing operations for identification of the event signal. Protocols for node operation then determine whether a remote user or neighboring WINS node should be alerted. The WINS node then supplies an attribute of the identified event, for example, the address of the event in an event look-up-table stored in...
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