During the Civil War the Northern states saw a growing economy with the government buying war goods and during this time brought on the industrial revolution, the railroads were finished being built so we now can travel East to the West. This allowed materials to be shipped wherever you needed them. After the Civil War the Northern and Southern politicians fought over who should run the South. The Southern Elites that were running the politics prior to the Civil War were just ordinary citizens trying to fight back to gain the political power. During this time the South needed to be rebuilt from the destruction the Civil War caused. Along with society trying to get back on their feet, blacks had their freedom but had nowhere to go. Although President Johnson was not a strong leader, he had to come up with a reconstruction plan to help the blacks to integrate into society. The blacks still suffered from discrimination, black codes, Ku Klux Klan lynching, and they had to be segregated. Political blacks won the right to vote, but, they were harassed, killed, threaten, and had to take a voting literacy test which prevented the majority of them from being able to register to vote. Even within the black community there were different classes between the blacks, those that had been free for years before the civil war and the newly freed blacks.
The Depression of 1873 saw the economy fail, the banking industry collapsed due to unpaid debts and railroads failed to repay their loans. Thousands of businesses closed down