Chapter 11.2 & 11.3
Introduction to Genetics
Read sections 11.2 & 11.3 and complete the guided notes below. 1. What is probability?
2. In a parent pea plant with the allele pair Gg, what is the probability that one gamete will contain the G allele?
3. Complete the graphic organizer to define the characteristics of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and phenotypes.
4. The dominant allele for smooth pod shape in peas is S. The recessive allele for constricted pod shape is s. In the Punnett square, show the result of crossing two heterozygous parents (Ss). Write the genotype and the phenotype of each type of offspring in the space provided.
For Questions 5–9, refer to the Punnett square above
5. What is the probability of a heterozygous offspring?
Explain your answer.
6. What is the probability of a homozygous offspring?
7. What is the probability of a homozygous recessive offspring?
8. What is the probability of a smooth phenotype?
9. What is the probability of a homozygous recessive individual (ss) producing a gamete with a dominant allele (S)?
10. State the principle of independent assortment.
11. Using the principle of independent assortment, complete the Punnett square to show the results of an F1 cross between two individuals heterozygous for both pod color (C = green and c = yellow) and pod shape (S = smooth and s + constricted). The gametes and some of the genotypes of the F2 offspring are given.
For Questions 12–15, refer to the Punnett square above.
12. Which genotype belongs to an offspring that is homozygous recessive for both traits? the probability of that genotype?
13. What is the phenotype of an individual heterozygous for both traits?
14. What is the probability of an F2 offspring having the green pod color and smooth pod shape? Explain. (Note: Remember that more than one genotype can produce this phenotype.)
15. The units that determine the inheritance of biological characteristics are 16. A form of a gene is a(n)
17. If two or more forms of a gene exist, some may be dominant and others may be
18. The offspring of most sexually reproducing organisms have two copies of each gene. One came from each .
19. Alleles from different genes usually
independently from each other when gametes form.
For Questions 21–25, match the term with its description.
20. Determine traits
21. Can be two of these in one gene
22. Allele that is expressed
23. Where genes come from
24. What genes do during gamete formation
25. Explain the importance of Thomas Hunt Morgan’s experiments with fruit flies. Why was his work an important addition to Mendel’s research?
26. Four sisters begin attending your school. One has brown hair and brown eyes. Another has brown hair and blue eyes. The third also has blue eyes, but blond hair. The fourth has blond hair, too, but she has brown eyes. Explain how the principle of independent segregation accounts for these sisters having four different phenotypes for two traits.
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