Bones: Bone Marrow Bone

Topics: Bone, Skeletal system, Bone marrow Pages: 20 (3148 words) Published: July 3, 2013
1
BONE AS A TISSUE
 Osteology – the study of bone
 Skeletal system - composed of bones,
cartilages, and ligaments
 form strong flexible framework of the body
 cartilage – forerunner of most bones
 covers many joint surfaces of mature bone
 Ligaments – hold bones together at the joints
 Tendons – attach muscle to bone
7-1
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON
 Support – hold the body up, supports muscles, mandible and maxilla support teeth
 Protection – brain, spinal cord, heart, lungs
 Movement – limb movements, breathing, action of muscle on bone
 Electrolyte balance – calcium and phosphate ions
 Acid-base balance – buffers blood against excessive pH changes
 Blood formation – red bone marrow is the chief producer of blood cells
7-2
BONES AND OSSEOUS TISSUE
 Bone (osseous tissue) - connective tissue with the matrix hardened by calcium phosphate and other minerals
 Mineralization or calcification – the hardening process of bone
 Individual bones consist of bone tissue, bone marrow,
cartilage, adipose tissue, nervous tissue, and fibrous
connective tissue
 Continually remodels itself and interacts physiologically with all of the other organ systems of the body
 Permeated with nerves and blood vessels, which attests to its sensitivity and metabolic activity
7-3
SHAPES OF BONES
 Long bones
 longer than wide
 rigid levers acted upon by muscles
 Short bones
 equal in length and width
 glide across one another in multiple
Scapula
Sphenoid bone
Flat bones Irregular bones
Vertebra g p
directions
 Flat bones
 protect soft organs
 curved but wide & thin
 Irregular bones
 elaborate shapes that don’t fit into the
other categories
7-4
Femur
Sternum
Radius
Ulna
Short bones Long bones
Capitate
(carpal) bone
Talus
GENERAL FEATURES OF BONES
 Compact (dense) bone – outer shell of long bone
 Diaphysis (shaft) - cylinder of compact bone to provide
leverage
 Medullary cavity (marrow cavity) - space in the
diaphysis of a long bone that contains bone marrow
 Epiphyses - enlarged ends of a long bone
 enlarged to strengthen joint and attach ligaments and
tendons
 Spongy (cancellous) bone covered by more durable
Marrow cavity
Periosteum
Epiphysis
Articular
cartilage
Epiphyseal
line
Red bone
marrow
Yellow bone marrow
compact bone
 skeleton about three-fourths compact and one-fourth
spongy bone by weight
 spongy bone found in ends of long bones, and the middle
of nearly all others
 Articular cartilage – a layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the joint surface where one bone meets
another
 allows joint to move more freely and relatively friction free
 Nutrient foramina – minute holes in the bone surface
that allows blood vessels to penetrate
7-5
(a) Living (b) Dried
Nutrient foramen
Site of endosteum
Compact bone
Spongy bone
Epiphysis
Diaphysis
Epiphyseal
line
Articular
cartilage
GENERAL FEATURES OF BONES
 Periosteum – external sheath that covers bone except where there is articular cartilage
 outer fibrous layer of collagen
 some outer fibers continuous with the tendons that attach muscle to bone  perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers – other outer fibers that penetrate into the bone matrix  strong attachment and continuity from muscle to tendon to bone  inner osteogenic layer of bone forming cells

 important to growth of bone and healing of fractures
 Endosteum– thin layer of reticular connective tissue lining marrow cavity  has cells that dissolve osseous tissue and others that deposit it  Epiphyseal plate (growth plate) – area of hyaline cartilage that separates the marrow spaces of the epiphysis and diaphysis

 enables growth in length
 epiphyseal line – in adults, a bony scar that marks where growth plate used to be 7-6
2
STRUCTURE OF A FLAT BONE
 Sandwich-like construction
 Two layers of compact
bone enclosing a middle
layer of spongy bone
 both surfaces of flat bone
covered with periosteum
Suture...
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