The Boeing 747 is a widebody commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by the nickname Jumbo Jet or ‘Queen of the Skies’. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first widebody ever produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the original version of the 747 was two and a half times the size of the Boeing 707, one of the common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years. The four-engine 747 uses a double deck configuration for part of its length. It is available in passenger, freighter and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first class lounge or (as is the general rule today) extra seating, and to allow the aircraft to be easily converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing did so because the company expected supersonic airliners (whose development was announced in the early 1960s) to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete; while believing that the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would be robust into the future. The 747 in particular was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold but it exceeded its critics' expectations with production passing the 1,000 mark in 1993. As of June 2010, 1,418 aircraft have been built, with 109 more in various configurations remaining on order. The 747-400, the latest version in service, is among the fastest airliners in service with a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85 (567 mph or 913 km/h). It has an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles (8,350 mi or 13,450 km). The 747-400 passenger version can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout or 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout. The newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and flight testing in late 2010. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version are scheduled to begin in mid-2011, with the 747-8I passenger version to follow in late 2011. The 747 is to be replaced by the Boeing Y3 (part of the Boeing Yellowstone Project) in the future.
The Boeing 747 is a large, wide-body (two-aisle) airliner with four wing-mounted engines. The wings have a high sweep angle of 37.5 degrees for a fast, efficient cruise of Mach 0.84 to 0.88, depending on the variant. The sweep also allows the 747 to use existing hangars. Seating capacity is more than 366 with a 3-4-3 seat arrangement (a cross section of 3 seats, an aisle, 4 seats, another aisle, and 3 seats) in economy class and a 2-3-2 arrangement in first class on the main deck. The upper deck has a 3-3 seat arrangement in economy class and a 2-2 arrangement in first class. Raised above the main deck, the cockpit creates a hump. The raised cockpit is to allow front loading of cargo on freight variants. The upper deck behind the cockpit provides space for a lounge or extra seating. The "stretched upper deck" became available as an option on the 747-100B variant and later as standard on the 747-300. The 747's maximum takeoff weight ranges from 735,000 pounds (333,400 kg) for the -100 to 970,000 lb (439,985 kg) for the -8. Its range has increased from 5,300 nautical miles (6,100 mi, 9,800 km) on the -100 to 8,000 NMI (9,200 mi, 14,815 km) on the -8I. The 747 has multiple structural redundancy including four redundant hydraulic systems and four main landing gears with 16 wheels each, which provide a good spread of support on the ground and safety in case of tire blow-outs. The redundant main gear allows for landing on two opposing landing gears if the others do not function properly. In addition, the 747 has split control surfaces and sophisticated triple-slotted flaps that minimize landing speeds and allow the 747 to use standard-length runways. For transportation of spare engines, 747s can accommodate a non-functioning fifth-pod engine under the port wing of the aircraft between the...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document