Module 1: Global Management in the Public Sector—Theoretical Perspectives Overview
In this module, we will focus on the relevant perspectives influencing public-sector management. Specifically, we will examine the historical, global, theoretical, ethical, and functional dimensions of public-sector management. We will explore the effects of globalization, the role of governments, the roles of intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and management, marketing, and finance strategies. Module 1: Global Management in the Public Sector—Theoretical Perspectives Objectives
After completing this module, you should be able to:
summarize the historical evolution of public-sector management describe three ways in which globalization has influenced public-sector management describe three theoretical perspectives in the development of public-sector management outline three ethical perspectives that are present in global public-sector management explain the role of governmental, nongovernmental, and intergovernmental organizations in public-sector management Topic 1. Introduction
Public-sector management is broadly defined to include the management of government agencies, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) such as the World Bank and the United Nations, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Red Cross/Red Crescent. These entities work to meet the identified needs of citizens based on the organizations' objectives, resources, capabilities, and managerial skills. In this module, we will look at the way public-sector management has evolved over time, explore the current theories and best practices in the field, and place public-sector management in the context of a worldwide practice. In the subsequent modules, we will study in detail the roles of governments, IGOs, and NGOs in the global context and the key managerial functions of strategic planning, human resource management, marketing, and finance around the world. Topic 2. Historical Perspectives of Public-Sector Management Humans have been managing their affairs and each other since the dawn of history. This process, over time, has separated into private management—that is, business management—and public-sector management. These two forms of management share numerous theories and characteristics, but the field of public-sector management remains distinct because it involves the need to promote the public interest. To understand where we are today, it is helpful to first look at the history of public-sector management. Where did we start, where have we been, and what is influencing us today? Traditionally, public-sector management reflected a top-down approach. After all, the first public-sector managers were tribal chiefs. In time, as populations grew and management became more complex, democratic traditions emerged, bureaucracies developed, and the rule of law became paramount. Theories of government and public service, wars, and growth drove changes in public-service management. Ultimately, the civil service as we know it today emerged in various forms in every country and governmental administrative unit. In recent years, we have seen two new perspectives emerging: 1. Globalization is the process of nations and societies becoming so interconnected that events in one country affect other countries and societies, even far-distant countries. Because of globalization public-sector managers in one country should be aware of and sensitive to the actions of their colleagues worldwide. 2. New public management (NPM), an approach to public-sector management, began in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United Kingdom and the United States (Gruening, 2001, p. 3). It is focused on reform based on adopting and adapting management techniques from the private sector. Thus, today, we live in world where globalization is forcing change in public-sector management. Professionals in the field look to the private sector for the techniques and management skills they...
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