Bloom's Taxonomy

Topics: Medical school, Doctor of Medicine, Physician Pages: 14 (3126 words) Published: January 3, 2013

Bloom's Taxonomy
The Three Types of Learning

There is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom, identified three domains of educational activities: • • • Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)


Table of Contents
Cognitive Domain
Example and Key Words


Affective Domain
Example and Key Words


Psychomotor Domain
Example and Key Words
Other Psychomotor Domains

2 2

Knowledge-Cognitive Domain Examples
Comprehension-Cognitive Domain Examples
Application-Cognitive Domain Examples
Analysis-Cognitive Domain Examples
Synthesis-Cognitive Domain Examples
Evaluation-Cognitive Domain Examples
Verb List for Writing Educational Objectives

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2


Cognitive Domain
The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, which are listed in order below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first one must be mastered before the next one can take place. Example and Key Words Level Knowledge: Recall data or information. Example Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules. Key Words Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states. Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives Examples, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates. Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.

Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words. Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.

Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one’s own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee’s vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.


Level Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences.  Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.

Example Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome. Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget.

Key Words Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates. Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells,...

References: Ainsworth M. Establishment of Internal Medicine Clerkship Objectives to Train the Generalist Physician. Academic Medicine. 1994 May; 69(5):424-5. Bloom BS (ed). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. New York: McKay; 1956 Dave, R. H. (1975). Developing and Writing Behavioral Objectives. (R J Armstrong, ed.) Educational Innovators Press. Gallagher RE, Smith DU. Formulation of Teaching/Learning Objectives Useful for the Development and Assessment of Lessons, Courses, and Programs. Journal of Cancer Education. 1989; 4(4):231-234. Gronlund N. Stating Objectives for Classroom Instruction. New York: Macmillan; 1978. Gronlund N. Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching. New York: Macmillan; 1985. Guilbert JJ. How to Devise Educational Objectives. Medical Education. 1984 May; 18(3): 134-41. Harrow AJ. A Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain: A Guide for Developing Behavioral Objectives. New York: McKay; 1972. Kern DE, Thomas PA, Howard DM, Bass EB. Curriculum Development for Medical Education: A Six Step Approach. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1998. Krathwohl, DR, Bloom BS, Masia BB. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook 2: Affective Domain. New York: McKay; 1964. Lawrence S, Simpson D, Rehm J. Determination of Third-Year Student Exposure to and Participation in Learning Objectives. Academic Medicine. 1998 May; 73(5):582-3. Liaison Committee on Medical Education. Functions and Structure of a Medical School: Standards for Accreditation of Medical Education Programs Leading to the M.D. Degree. Washington, DC and Chicago, IL: The Association of American Medical Colleges and the American Medical Association; 1994. Mager R. Preparing Instructional Objectives. Palo Alto, CA: Fearon Publishers; 1962. Mager R. Preparing Instructional Objectives, 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Fearon-Pitman Publishers; 1975.
Mast TA. Curricular Objectives 1980. Springfield, IL: Southern Illinois School of Medicine; 1980. Mast TA, Evans GP, Williams RG, Silber DL. Medical Student Use of Objectives in Basic Science and Clinical Instruction. Journal of Medical Education. 1980 Sep; 55(9):765-72. McGuire C. A process approach to the construction and analysis of medical examinations. Journal of Medical Education. 1963; 38:556-63. Medical School Writing Objectives Group. Learning Objectives for Medical Student Education – Guidelines for Medical Schools: Report I of the School Objectives Project. Academic Medicine. 1999 Jan; 74(1):13-18. Miller GE. Teaching and Learning in Medical School. Medical Education. 1978; 12:120. Muller S (chairman). Physicians for the Twenty-First Century: Report of the Project Panel on the General Professional Education of the Physician and College Preparation for Medicine. Journal of Medical Education. 1984 Nov; 59(11Pt.2)1-208. Popham J, Baker E. Systematic Instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1970. Popham WJ. Probing the Validity of Arguments Against Behavioral Goals. Cited in Kibler RJ, Barker LL, Miles DT. Behavioral Objectives and Instruction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon; 1970: 115-24. Rappleye WC (director). Medical Education: Final Report of the Commission on Medical Education. New York: Association of American Medical Colleges; 1932. Simpson E. J. (1972). The Classification of Educational Objectives in the Psychomotor Domain. Washington, DC: Gryphon House. Swanson AG, Anderson MB. Educating Medical Students: Assessing Change in Medical Education – The Road to Implementation. Academic Medicine. 1993 June; 68(6):S1-46. Westberg J, Jason H. Collaborative Clinical Education. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 1993.
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