Anatomy And Physiology
• Arteries are thick walled, yet they are elastic
enough to stand pressure from the heart
pumping at a fast rate. The arteries job is to
transport blood away from the heart, usually
only transporting highly oxygenated blood,
having just left the lungs and on its way to the
• There are smaller branches of the arteries called
arterioles, they connect to the capillaries.
• Arterioles are the main regulators of blood flow and
• There used basically as small little bridge, to
transport the blood to the capillaries.
• The connectors between the veins and
arteries. Very tiny and thin walled like
arterioles, (their actually buddies) their
function is to supply body tissue with the
components of blood and to get rid of waste
from surrounding cells. They have a specific
job, unlike most blood vessels, which primary
job is to transport blood from one station to
• Venules are minute veins- Meaning real quick.
There main job is to drain the capillaries into
veins, returning the blood to the heart. Many
Venules unite into one big vein.
• Veins walls consist of 3 different layers, that
are thinner and less stretchy as the layers of
arteries. Veins have valves also that aid in
returning the blood to the heart, without
backtracking or having the blood flow in
reverse. Veins only transport oxygenated
Main Blood Vessels
• The Aorta is the largest principal artery in the
body. It leads to all organs in the body.
Supplying vital oxygen and nutrients.
• Coronary artery is branch of the aorta
vessel, it supplies the heart with oxygen and
• Pulmonary artery branches into where
the blood is oxygenated.
Continuous main blood vessels
• Superior vena cava returns deoxygenated blood from the
head, arm, thorax to the right atrium.
• Inferior vena cava returns deoxygenated blood from the abs and the legs to the right atrium.
• Coronary vein Pulmonary veins four pulmonary veins, two
from each lung. Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
• Hepatic portal vein leads from internal organs to the liver. Its main purpose is to carry blood that contains digested food
(glucose) from the small intestine to liver, where some food is deposited and stored.
Steps to taking your own blood pressure
• 1. Find your pulse
• Put the cuff on your arm, making sure the
stethoscope head is over the artery (ours shows
the exact spot) make sure it is fit snug, but NOT
• Inflate and deflate, also putting the stethoscope
in your ears to get best hearing… when it has
done its job it will deflate and tell you, your
current blood pressure and heart rate.
Hypertension and shock
• High blood pressure- Blood pressure is the force of
blood pushing up against the blood vessel walls. The higher
the pressure the harder the heart has to pump.
• Side effects/results of high blood pressure are damaged
organs, severe illness, which can be fatal, such as kidney
failure, stroke, heart attack.
• The exact link to the cause of hypertension is unknown… but there are a few things that can give you a higher risk to high blood pressure.
• Obesity, smoking, diabetes, lack of physical movement, stress aging, medications the list goes on and on.
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