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Blood Disorders and Their Components

By quanicmat Jun 03, 2010 1217 Words
Blood Disorder and Components
Adrienne Lynch
HCA 240
Group ID: AAGR0P54X7
Richard Jones
05/23/2010

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In each body, human or animal there is a blood flow that circulates throughout the body that helps them to maintain life. It is a fluid that sustains the internal organs to continue to give nutrients for the body to continue to live. Blood is one of the essential parts of the body functions. We need blood to supply nutrient to other organs and vessels within the body. Throughout this paper, we will be discussing the parts of the following blood productions Plasma Red Blood cells and Platelets. Also describing the symptoms, diagnosis and proper treatment of the following blood disorders Iron deficiency anemia Vitamin B12 deficiency Sickle cell anemia Thrombocytopenia. -------------------------------------------------

What is the function of the blood and it components? The function of the blood is that blood is carries nourishment, vitamins, Oxygen, antibodies and hormones. It also carries certain waste matter and carbon dioxide away from the body tissues. According to the Children Hospital of Wisconsin, Human blood consists of 22 percent of solid and 78 percent water. (chw.org). One of the blood components is Plasma Red Blood cells. Plasma is the clear liquid part of the blood.  90 percent of plasma is water.  The other 10 percent contains other types of molecules, which includes cellular wastes, glucose, vitamins, salts, nutrients and proteins.  The three key types of proteins which is present in plasma.  There is albumin, fibrinogen, and globulins.  Each of these proteins has a particular function to carry out. -------------------------------------------------

The albuminkeeps water from exiting the blood and entering the surrounding cells by osmosis (cdli.ca). By doing this it is helping to keep the absorption of the water within the blood the same as the absorption in the body tissues (cdli.ca). The fibrinogen helps in the clotting of the blood. Other globulins transmit proteins and other substances from one part of the body to the other.  They are recognized as antibodies, which helps to fight off infection.  Antibodies are proteins that attach to and help destroy unfamiliar substances in the body. (cdli.ca). This brings me now to the Red Blood Cells.The human body contains approximately 5 millions/ of blood in humans; the matured red blood cells do not contain nuclei. Their cytoplasm is filled with an iron-containing protein called hemoglobin.  Hemoglobin is the substance that gives the blood its red color. When a person has an insufficient amount of hemoglobin or too few red blood cells, this is referred to as anemia.  Both of these conditions lower the amount of oxygen that can be carried throughout the blood (cdli.ca). -------------------------------------------------

There is also a blood disorder called Iron deficiency anemia. A symptom for this is the body feeling cold because iron plays a role in keeping the body temperature regulated also pale skin color, fatigue, irritability, dizziness, weakness, shortness of breath, sore tongue, brittle nails, decreased appetite (especially in children), headache - frontal. (WebMD.com Physicians usually perform specific blood test to diagnose iron deficiency anemia. These tests are basically very simple blood test. They will perform a CBC (Complete Blood Count) blood test to determine if you have it. If the test reveal that you do have it, your physician may start a treatment to increase your red blood count. -------------------------------------------------

Now there is also another disorder call Vitamin B12 deficiency. This disorder just says that your body does not have enough of this supplement in your body. B12 is needed to produce red blood cell which carries oxygen throughout the body. You may have the same symptoms that Iron deficiency patient have but there are other symptoms like weight loss and diarrhea. If your B12 level stays low for a long period of time, it can damage you nerve cells. Those symptoms may include numbness of toes and finger, Dementia, and in some cases depression. In order for the physician to diagnose you for this, just as iron deficiency anemia, simple blood test will be performed. If the diagnosis is B12 deficiency, then your physician will give regular B12 shots to help regulate the level of B12. These shot will be given every day for about a week and then once a month. -------------------------------------------------

Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder. People with sickle cell disease have red blood cells that contain mostly hemoglobin* S. This is an abnormal type of hemoglobin. These red blood cells become sickle-shaped (crescent shaped) and have difficulty passing through small blood vessels (WebMd.com). When a person is affected by sickle cell disease, the hemoglobin is the main component that is affected in the body. Further all complications results from this basic condition. The life of the hemoglobin is reduced to about 20 days. The infected hemoglobin is known as the hemoglobin S a short form for hemoglobin sickle. The affected hemoglobin turns a sickle shape. The peculiarity of this shape itself being, it does not flow easily through the veins. It starts clogging the veins. The clogged veins do not allow the good hemoglobin to flow through them also. -------------------------------------------------

When obtaining testing for sickle cell anemia a small smear of blood using a low oxygen preparation. The disease is confirmed by a counting the different types of hemoglobin that is present in the test. As a result, treatment for sickle cell anemia is usually aimed at avoiding crises, relieving symptoms and preventing complications. If you have sickle cell anemia, you'll need to make regular visits to your doctor to check your red blood cell count and monitor your health. Treatments may include medications to reduce pain and prevent complications, blood transfusions and supplemental oxygen, as well as bone marrow transplant. (mayoclinic.com) -------------------------------------------------

Thrombocytopenia is the low platelet count. Platelets are the cells that are in our blood and allow the blood to clot and stop the loss of red blood cells. In a normal healthy body, the platelets are loss, but they are replaced with new ones. Thrombocytopenia happens when platelets are not replaced at the rate when loss. The signs that associated itself with this disorder are vomiting blood, nosebleeds and excessive vaginal bleeding. This disorder can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. In some cases, testing bone marrow will have to be performed, as well as an examination of the spleen. Treatment for thrombocytopenia depends on the cause, but may include steroids or other medication and may require platelet transfusions. (mayoclinic.com) -------------------------------------------------

Knowing these different blood disorders and their components is a good way to keep up with the symptoms. The treatment of the blood disorders varies from one case to another. Some of the times, the treatment may resume to supplements, while in other cases the treatment is based on medication that improves the immune system. On the other hand, some treatments for blood disorders are based on stimulating factors that help the number of blood cells to increase. In some cases, changes of the diet are necessary. Several foods are rich in fat oils. These oils get in the blood and determine the blood to become thick. The circulation of the blood is made with difficulty. This leads to one of the blood disorders. -------------------------------------------------

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References
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WWW. CDLI.Ca
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WWW. CHW.ORG.
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WWW. MAYOCLINIC.COM
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WWW.PEOPLEHEALTH.COM

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