1. State the substances that blood transports.
Ans: pg. 664 - oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste products, hormones
2. Which processes does blood help regulate?
Ans: pg. 664 – homeostasis, pH, body temperature, water content of cells
3. How does the volume of blood in your body compare to the volume of fluid in a two-liter bottle of soda? Ans: pg. 664 – in the average-sized adult male the blood volume is 5-6 liters and 4-5 liters in the adult female
4. Which formed elements of blood are most numerous?
Ans: pg.664 - red blood cells
5. What is the buffy coat?
Ans: pg. 664 – white blood cells and platelets
6. List the functions of plasma proteins.
Ans: pg. 664 – a) albumins: help maintain proper blood osmotic pressure, b) globulin: involved in immunity, c) fibrinogen: formation of blood clots
7. Which formed elements of the blood are cell fragments?
Ans: pg. 666 – platelets
8. What is the significance of a lower-than-normal hematocrit? A higher-than-normal hematocrit? Ans: pg. 667 – a) indicates anemia, b) indicates poycythemia
9. What is the primary site for the development of formed elements after birth? Ans: pg. 668 – red bone marrow
10. From which connective tissue cells do pluripotent stem cells develop? Ans: pg. 669 – mesenchymal cells
11. Compare the development of lymphocytes with the development of the other formed elements. Ans: pg. 669 – B lymphocytes develop in red bone marrow, T lymphocytes develop in red bone marrow and mature in the thymus; the other formed elements develop in red bone marrow
12. How are red blood cells able to squeeze through capillaries that are smaller in diameter than they are? Ans: pg. 669 – the cell membrane is strong and flexible, so can deform without rupturing the cell
13. Which characteristics of red blood cells facilitate oxygen transport? Ans: pg. 669 – no nucleus, thus more room; generate ATP anaerobically, so do not use oxygen; shape is biconcave disc for more surface area
14. How many molecules of O2 can one hemoglobin molecule transport? Ans: pg. 669 – four
15. Which part of the hemoglobin molecule carries oxygen? Which part carries carbon dioxide? Ans: pg. 669 –a) the iron ion at the center of the heme ring; b) amino acids in the globin part of hemoglobin
16. Why do red blood cells live for only about 120 days?
Ans: pg. 671 – because of the wear and tear their plasma membranes undergo as they squeeze through blood capillaries
17. As red blood cells die, how are the components of hemoglobin recycled or excreted? Ans: pg. 671 – 1) globin is broken down into amino acids for reuse by the body, 2) iron is removed from the heme portion and attached to transferrin, then carried to red bone marrow to be used in hemoglobin synthesis, 3) the non-iron portion is converted to buliverdin, then to bilirubin, which is transported to the liver, then secreted by hepatocytes into bile which eventually enters the large intestine, converted into urobilinogen, some of which is absorbed back into the blood and eventually excreted in urine, most is eliminated in feces
18. What is erythropoiesis? Which factors speed up and slow down erythropoiesis? Ans: pg. 672 – a) the production of RBCs; b) Erythropoiesis is speeded up when oxygen delivery to the kidneys falls and slows down when there is sufficient oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
19. Which forms of red blood cells are found in circulating blood? Ans: pg. 672 – erythrocytes (mature RBC without nuclei)
20. A hematocrit indicates the percentage of the blood volume occupied by red blood cells. How might your hematocrit change if you moved from a town at sea level to a high mountain village where the air contains less oxygen than at sea level? Ans: pg. 672 – It might increase because more red cells would be needed due to the reduced oxygen content of air at high altitudes.
21. Which ABO antigens are found in type AB blood? In type O...
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