Some conservative thinks are focused on young people that are seen only as self-centered and “parasite singles” (Masahiro Yamada), because they don’t marry and live with their parents, although they are employed. In the same view the changed role and status of women is considered destructive for the traditional family, because they would realize themselves and have personal satisfaction despite the mother role. But how the author contest, “the lowest TFR (total fertility rate) in Europe is found in Spain and Italy, both more traditional, male-orientated societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women” while in Sweden, where women are more emancipated the birth rate is higher. The reason could be in the more efficient social services. But, as Jonathan V. Last (Wall Street journal, 2013) suggests, social programs for women and families would not solve the problem. France, for example, “hasn’t been able to stay at the replacement rate, even with all its day-care spending.” (J. V. Last, 2013).
According to Jonathan V. Last, I think that these aren’t the best explanations, which, I suppose, are to be founded in socio-economic reasons that I will discuss.
First of all there is a sense of insecurity due to the economic crisis: “Middle-class wages began a long period of stagnation” (J.V. Last, 2013) and jobs are often precarious. Birrel (2003) points on increased economic uncertainty for men. He refers to the Australian society where only two-thirds of men, aged 25-44, are in full-time work. “young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). In this precarious situation