Biosorption of Heavy Metals

Pages: 41 (6744 words) Published: May 30, 2014
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
In this decade, there were many industrial processes such as mining operation, metal plating facilities, fertilizer industries, tanneries, batteries, paper industries and pesticides that release heavy metals wastewater directly or indirectly into the environment. Toxic heavy metals of particular concern in the treatment of industrial wastewaters include zinc, copper, nickel, mercury, cadmium, lead and chromium (F. Fu, Q Wang, 2011). These activities will cause the water pollutant to occur and pollution by toxic chemicals has become a worldwide problem now. Today, many developed and developing countries are seriously affected by this water pollution. In Malaysia, most of water pollution is caused by the discharge of industrial effluents (Vynavi, 2005). Heavy metals are elements that having atomic weights between 63.5 and 200.6 and a specific gravity greater than 5.0 (Srivastava and Majumder, 2008) and it's also extremely toxic metals, non-biodegradable and tend to accumulate as metal organic complex (Israel and Eduok, 2012). So heavy metal must be removed in order to achieve the environmental quality standard (A. Witek-Krowiak et al, .2011). There were many methods are being used to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater such as chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration, electrochemical treatment technologies, etc. But the certain method has its disadvantages such as incomplete metal removal, high reagent and energy requirements, generation of toxic sludge or other waste product require disposal, for example activated carbon need high cost to produce. The adsorption method in removing heavy metals have been considered better for wastewater treatment because of low cost and ease of operation, simplicity of design and insensitivity to toxic pollutants. One of the most commonly adsorption methods used for the removal of heavy metal from water is activated carbon but due to its higher cost and the need for a costly regeneration system make the activated carbon is less economically viable as excellent adsorbent (M. Achak et al. ,2009). The natural adsorbent method has been observed as an alternative ways to replace the activated carbon in order to overcome high cost problem. Biosorbent from waste was an effective ways for water and wastewater treatment, since the absorbent is cheaper, renewable and abundantly available (A. Bhatnagar et al., 2010). The ability of low cost natural source is the abundant waste from the non-profitable part of fruits may be useful for such procedure. The aromatic green dwarf is cultivated and well adapted in several countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Brazil and other countries. In Malaysia aromatic green dwarf is very popular for its juice as beverages in the restaurant as well used in food industry as food flavorings. The waste material of aromatic green dwarfs not yet been discovered. The larger amount of this waste produces a problem to the environment. Aromatic green dwarf coir is municipal waste that has great potential to be an absorbing due to its similar characteristic with coconut coir, by this way we can reduce the high amount waste material of aromatic green dwarf and turn over the waste material to something useful.

1.2 Problem statement
There are many industries that release heavy metal to aquatic ecosystem. This led to pollutant in source and treated water and become several public health problems. Heavy metals are toxic and non-biodegradable, which can accumulate in living tissue causing various diseases and disorders to living things. Copper is one of the heavy metals which can cause the toxicological if the ingestion of copper is overdose. So heavy metals is must be removed from the pollutant streams for the environmental quality standards to meet (Fenglian Fu and Qi Wang, 2010). There are many methods has been used in of heavy metal wastewater treatment, such as ion-exchange,...

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A.E
Leila Chebil Ajjabi and Lassaad Chouba (2009) Biosorption of Cu2+ and Zn2+ from Aqueous Solutions by Dried Marine Green Macroalga Chaetomorpha linun. Journal of Environmental Management: 3485-3489
Milena A
Anna Witek-Krowiak, Roman G. Szafran and Szymon Modelski (2010) Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Aquoeus solutions onto Peanut Shell as a Low-Cost Biosorbent. Desalination: 126-134
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Copper (n.d) Minerals and Energy Education Oresome Resources.
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LENNTECH (n.d), Heavy metals and Copper. http://www.lenntech.com (Assessed 12/9/2012)
F.D
Asma Saeed, M. Waheed Akhter and Muhammad Iqbal (2005) Removal and Recovery of Heavy Metal from Aqueous Solution Using Papaya Wood as A New Biosorbent. Separation and Purification Technology: 25-31
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M.A. Barakat (2010) New Trends in Removing Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewater. Arabian Journal of Chemistry : 361-377
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APPENDIX A
M1V1 = M2V2
(20ppm)(250mL) = (1000ppm)(V2)
M1V1 = M2V2
(50ppm)(500mL) = (1000ppm)(V2)
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