Topics: Bionics, Materials science, Biology Pages: 7 (2463 words) Published: April 25, 2014
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Velcro tape mimics biological examples of multiply hooked structures such as burs. Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.[1] The terms biomimetics and biomimicry come from the Greek words bios, meaning life, andmimesis, meaning to imitate. A closely related field is bionics.[2] Living organisms have evolved well-adapted structures and materials over geological time through natural selection. Biomimetics has given rise to new technologies inspired by biological solutions at macro and nanoscales. Humans have looked at nature for answers to problems throughout our existence. Nature has solved many of today's engineering problems such as self-healing abilities, environmental exposure tolerance and resistance, hydrophobicity, self-assembly, and harnessing solar energy. Contents

1 Usage
2 History
3 Nanobiomimetics or Nanobiomimicry
3.1 Fabrication
3.2 Biologically inspired engineering
3.2.1 Biomedicine
3.2.2 Nanowires, nanotubes, and quantum dots
3.2.3 Display technology
4 Additional examples
5 See also
6 References
7 Further reading
8 External links
8.1 Videos
Biomimetics can be found in a wide variety of areas, due to the deep complexity of biological systems the amount of available data concerning adaptations and solutions to various problems is very large, solutions can also be repurposed for new areas which extends this even further. Some brief examples of this include :[3]

Design for a flying machine with wings based closely upon the structure of a bat's wings. Aircraft wing design[4] and flight techniques[5] inspired by birds and bats

The Stickybot
Climbing robots,[6] boots and tape[7] mimicking geckos feet and their ability for adhesive reversal Nanotechnology surfaces that recreate properties of shark skin Neural networks that mimic the human brain

Treads on tires[8] inspired by the toe pads of tree frogs
Self sharpening teeth found on many animals, copied to make better cutting tools[9] Protein folding used to control material formation for self assembled functional nanostructures[10] The light refracting properties of butterfly wings are harnessed to provide improved digital displays and everlasting colour[11] The shape of boxfish that improves the efficiency of cars Better ceramics by copying the properties of seashells[12]

Polar bear fur inspired thermal collectors and clothing[13]
Mimicking the distribution of leaves on a plant for better solar power collection[14] Studying the light refractive properties of the moth's eye to produce less reflective solar panels[15] Studying self healing properties of various biological systems to produce polymers and polymer composites capable of mending cracks History[edit]

One of the early examples of biomimicry was the study of birds to enable human flight. Although never successful in creating a "flying machine", Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was a keen observer of the anatomy and flight of birds, and made numerous notes and sketches on his observations as well as sketches of "flying machines".[4] The Wright Brothers, who succeeded in flying the first heavier-than-air aircraft in 1903, derived inspiration from observations of pigeons in flight.[16] Biomimetics was coined by the American biophysicist and polymath Otto Schmitt during the 1950s.[17] It was during his doctoral research that he developed the Schmitt trigger by studying the nerves in squid, attempting to engineer a device that replicated the biological system of nerve propagation.[18] He continued to focus on devices that mimic natural systems and by 1957 he had perceived a converse to the standard view of biophysics at that time, a view he would come to call biomimetics.[17] Biophysics is not so much a subject matter as it is a point of view. It is an approach to problems of biological science utilizing...

References: —Otto Herbert Schmitt, In Appreciation, A Lifetime of Connections: Otto Herbert Schmitt, 1913 - 1998
A similar term, 'Bionics ' was coined by Jack Steele in 1960 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio where Otto Schmitt also worked
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