Biomechanics.

Topics: Knee, Classical mechanics, Newton's laws of motion Pages: 17 (3187 words) Published: September 26, 2013


Functions of the skeleton:

The skeleton provides the body’s bony framework. Its four key functions are: 1.To provide shape and structure
2.To protect the body’s organs
3With muscle allows the body to move
4.To store calcium and produce blood cells

JOINTS:

A joint is where two bones meet. They are characterized by the amount of movement they allow. There are three main groups:

1.Immobile:
Where the bones are jointed together and don’t move.
eg: Bones of the skull

2.Cartilaginous:
Where the bones are jointed together by a thick pad of cartilage which act as a shock absorber.
eg: Vertebrae of the spine

3.Synovial:
They are extremely mobile and complex and are primarily involved in the movement of the body.
eg: shoulder, knee fingers, hip etc

SYNOVIAL JOINTS:

These are classified by the amount of movements they allow. At year 11 we will look at 4 of the synovial joints even though there are 6 types.

Types of Synovial joints:

1. Ball and Socket:Hip and shoulder joints.
Allows multiple movements in all directions.

2. Hinge:Elbow, ankle, knee and finger joints.
Allows you to bend or straighten in one direction only.

3. Saddle:Joint at the base of the thumb, between the carpels and metacarpals. Allows to and fro and side to side movement.

4. Condyloid:Between forearm and wrist.
Movement occurs in two directions at right angles to each other.

Identify the joint movement:
Elbow:
Bending the arm:Flexion
Straightening the elbow Extension
Hip
Bringing the leg up to the stomachFlexion
Moving from a sit to a standExtension
Doing the splits sidewaysAbduction
Bringing the leg back to kick the ballExtension
Knee:
Bending KneeFlexion
Moving from a sit to a standExtension
Wrist:
Turning a card over Supination
Snapping wrist after a basketball shot:Flexion
Ankle:
Pointing your toesPlantar flexion
Pull toes backDorsiflexion
Shoulder:
Moving arms out from sideAbduction
Lifting shoulders upElevation
Dropping shouldersDepression
Pull shoulder blades together Retraction
Swinging arm forwardFlexion
Swinging arm backExtension

Picture identification
For the following picture identify:
1. the joints type involved
2. The bones involved at the joint
3. The movements occurring at the joints from picture one to two.

Ankle:
1. Hinge
2. Tarsals, Tibia,
Fibula
3.Dorsiflexion

1 2

Shoulder:1.Ball and socket
2.Clavicle, Scapula, Humerus
3.Flexion

Hip:1.Ball and socket
2.Pelvis, Femur
3.Flexion

Knee:1.Hinge
2.Femur, Tibia, Patella
3.Flexion

MUSCLES
Label the muscles:

Joints/Bones/Muscles

Fill in the table below to improve your understanding:
ACTION
Synovial joint type
Bones articulating
Agonist muscle
Antagonist
Movement type
From bent-Straightening your leg.
Hinge
Femur, Patella, Tibia
Quadriceps
Hamstrings
Extension
From straight-Bending your elbow.
Hinge
Humerus, Radius, Ulna
Biceps
Triceps
Flexion
Raising or shrugging your shoulders.
Ball and socket
Clavical, Scapula
Trapezius

Elevation
Lifting your leg back behind you.
Ball and socket
Pelvis, Femur
HamstringsGluteals
Quadriceps
Extension
What is happening at the shoulder in the effort phase of the bench press. Ball and socket
Clavicle, scapula, Humerus
Pectorals

Circumduction
Lifting your arm straight out to the side of your body.
Ball and socket
Clavicle, scapula, Humerus
Deltoid

Abduction
Ankle- Standing on tip toes.
Hinge
Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals
Soleus,
Gastrocnemius
Tibialis anterior
Plantar flexion
Underarm Serve in Badminton- upswing at the shoulder
Ball and socket
Clavicle, scapula, Humerus
Deltoid and Pectorals

Flexion
Anatomical Features
Feature...
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